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Philo Farnsworth (1906-1971)
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The inventors that put the Pizzazz in Radio Wave. (Get free copies of Farnsworth - U.S. Wireless Acci Patents)

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FEATURE STORY
• 02. TimeLine
03. PHONY
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DeForestArmstrongAlexandersonFarnsworth

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Philo Farnsworth
(1906-1971)
of the SMART - DAFF Boys
(The inventors that put the Pizzazz in Radio Waves)

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Philo Farnsworth 1906 - 1971. What Farnsworth did for the picture image you see on your television set, is what Stubblefield did for the voice you hear on your wireless cellphone and radio set. Farnsworth Converted the Electromagnetic Wave to Images a viewer could see on a Television Receiver &endash; 1930 See Radio Patent Information & Public Demonstrations.
••• Both Farnsworth and Stubblefield used a continuous EMW wave to add pictures and voice to the RF spectrum, in 1927, and 1907, respectfully, as shown in their U.S. patents.
••• The other 7 SMART-DAAF BOYS, utilized and originated basic spark gap principles to transmit dit-dah sound signals. Farnsworth was the last of the SMART DAAF Boys to die.
•••While Still A Teenager, the fifteen-year-old Farnsworth, had become excited by radio and television after reading about Boris Rosing's work in a magazine. He created an electronic television system that was superior to the mechanical discs used experimentally at the time.
••• While still in high school, he conceived the basic requirements for television and in his third year at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, he began research into the process of picture transmission.
••• • 1926 - In 1926, at the age of 20, he cofounded Crocker Research laboratories, to market his electronic television camera tube, he had just applied a patent for. The camera tube later became known as an image dissector.
••• The camera tube created an image by producing an electronic signal that corresponded to the brightness of the objects being televised. Farnsworth demonstrated the image dissector in 1927.
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1. Feature (Excerpt from)  "The SMART-DAAF BOYS"™
• • Continued from above -Philo Farnsworth was born to Lewis and Serena Farnsworth on August 19, 1906 in Beaver City, Utah. His parents' families were pioneers who had travelled across the United States on wagon trains to Utah to help found the Mormon religion. In order to broaden their children's educational backgrounds, Philo's parents subscribed to technical magazines which so much stimulated their son's interest that at the age of six, he declared he wanted to become an inventor.
••• While still in high school, he conceived the basic requirements for television. While attending Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, Farnsworth started working as an office boy for George Everson, (later his biographer) -- who was head of the Community Chest Drive in Salt Lake City.
••• He mentioned his ideas about television to Everson who became enthused by the young man's genius and his research into the process of picture transmission. As Everson puts it, "he rounded up a group of San Francisco backers who put up $25,000," and cofounded the Crocker Research laboratories with the yourg 20 year old.
••• In 1926, Farnsworth applied for a patent on his electronic television camera tube. Later, in the summer of 1927, Farnsworth demonstrated to his Crocker Research lab backers, the camera tube which created an image by producing an electronic signal that corresponded to the brightness of the objects being televised.
••• By 1928, Farnsworth demonstrated the fully developed image dissector. The "image dissector" camera tube offered a 150 line picture scanning at thirty times a second.
••• Like in the early days of Stubblefield and Marconi's wireless telephony and telegraphy, of 1900, there were no packets of radio and television tubes, ready made antenna's, instant coffee and Creamora laying around, where all you had to do was add hot water.
••• Although the words "radio", "television, and the terms "antenna", "radio tubes" and "AC alternators" did exist when Farnsworth patented his "image dissector," it didn't make his job any easier getting a patent named after the term, "television". Only Smart-Daaf Boys Marconi and Stubblefield belong to that exclusive "wireless" telegrapy and telephonly club.
••• In fact, to make telephony talk in a big way, it took over eighteen years, starting in 1892, just to get the government to patent the first Wireless Telephone™. It took another 90 years, in 1996 -- before the first group of Wireless Telephone™ frequencies were sold to the general public, by the FCC for billions of dollars. CLICK TO SEE 1907 AUTO PATENT DRAWING.
02 / TIMELINE - Philo Farnsworth
• 1906 - Philo Farnsworth (b: August 19, 1906 - d: March 11, 1971). Farnsworth was born in Beaver, Utah on August 19, 1906. He died in Salt Lake City, Utah on March 11, 1971.
• 1919 - Vladimir Zworykin, the adversary of Farnsworth, in the 30s, escapes to the United States in 1919, after the Russian revolution. Zworykin as a graduate student in St. Petersburg, having been the assistant of Boris Lvovich Rosing, (1869&endash;1933) -- a Russian scientist and inventor in the field of television. In 1907, Rosing envisioned a TV system using the CRT on the receiving side, and although it used a CRT, its operation was electromechanical instead of purely electronic (as all modern televisions derived from the Farnsworth invention are).
• 1921 - While Still A Teenager, the fifteen-year-old Farnsworth, had become excited by radio and television after reading about Rosing's work in a magazine. He created an electronic television system that was superior to the mechanical discs used experimentally at the time.
• 1926 - While still in high school, he conceived the basic requirements for television and in his third year at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, he began research into the process of picture transmission.
• 1926 - In 1926, at the age of 20, he cofounded Crocker Research laboratories, to market his electronic television camera tube, he had just applied a patent for. The camera tube later became known as an image dissector.
••• The camera tube created an image by producing an electronic signal that corresponded to the brightness of the objects being televised. Farnsworth demonstrated the image dissector in 1927.
• 1927 - In 1927, he formed, Farnsworth Television, Inc. (1929) which later known as Farnsworth Radio and Television Corporation (1938). All of these corporations stemmed from his first company which he cofounded in 1926, the Crocker Research laboratories.
• 1927 - In 1927, Farnsworth successfully transmitted an image, (a dollar sign) - composed of 60 horizontal lines and submitted his first television patent. He subsequently invented numerous devices, including equipment for converting an optical image into an electrical signal, amplifier tubes, cathode-ray tubes, electrical scanners, electron multipliers, and photoelectric materials. He also contributed to the development of radar systems, vacuum tubes, and the generation of electrical energy by atomic fusion.
• 1927 - Since the networks won't likely re-enact Farnsworth's big moment, you'll have to visualize it for yourself. The setting: his modest San Francisco lab where, on Sept. 7, 1927, the 21-year-old self-taught genius transmitted the image of a horizontal line to a receiver in the next room.
••• Later that day, he triumphantly wired one of his backers in Los Angeles: "THE DAMNED THING WORKS!"
••• It worked -- just like Farnsworth had imagined when, as a 14-year-old Idaho farmboy already obsessed with inventing television, he had been plowing a field and realized an image could be scanned onto a picture tube the same way: row by row.
1927 - On January 7, 1927, Farnsworth filed for his first patent application. This was the beginning of a continuous series of patent applications which he had to file in order to protect each improvement on his invention.
1930 - Finally, on August 26, 1930 after many gruelling months of legal battles and financial worries (Farnsworth's backers spent over $30,000 on the case), the twenty-four year old Farnsworth was issued patent number 1,773,980 which covered broadly his system of television and reception. MORE SEE STORY PEOPLE
• 1930 - Farnsworth granted patent. Philco TV. Its lawyers, in proceedings claiming interference, sharply questioned Farnsworth for many hours, but failed to break him down. He got his patent in 1930, when he was twenty-four years old. During the early 1930s, Philco became Farnsworth's chief backer.
1931 - In may, 1931 David Sarnoff, president of RCA paid a visit to Farnsworth's San Francisco lab to find out whether Farnsworth and his backers would consider selling the patent, laboratory and Farnsworth's services for $100,000. They were refused outright.
1931 - Philco and Farnsworth Deal. In June, 1931, Farnsworth and his backers entered into a licensing agreement which gave the Philco Company (the largest manufacturer of radios at the time) the licensing rights for television receiver sets. This necessitated a move to Philadelphia for Farnsworth and most of his staff where they occupied a Philco laboratory at the Ontario and C Street plant.
• 1931 - MAXWELL'S ETHER THEORY DIES - November, 13, 1931. The one-hundredth anniversary of Clerk Maxwell's birth was marked by the scientific world "digging a grave for the theory of a luminiferous ether," but at the same time honoring Maxwell's mathematical genius.
1933 - Cathode Tube. While working at Philco, Farnsworth began to develop his "multipactor" tube which had the ability to transmit television impulses and could be used as well as an amplifier, detector, rectifier, and multiplier tube. It was the first "cold cathode" tube and it was hailed by scientists and engineers as a major breakthrough,
1934 - In the summer of 1934, Farnsworth and his men decided to leave Philco and establish their own separate laboratory, while remaining in Philadelphia, which was then the center of the radio industry. They turned their attention towards developing a practical demonstration unit for television.
• 1935 - Never mind the record says different. In 1935 the courts ruled on Farnsworth's patent, which RCA was contesting as part of Sarnoff's endless campaign of litigation, propaganda and dirty tricks. The decision, upheld on appeal: Farnsworth, not RCA's chief television engineer Vladimir Zworykin, is the father of TV.
1936 - TV Transmissions. Farnsworth and invited him to England by John Logie Baird, a Scotsman who was the other developer of a workable television system based on the revolving disk. At the Crystal Palace in London Farnsworth's demonstration (in which he transmitted a signal that was picked up 25 miles away) was such a success that Parliament voted to have the British Broadcasting Company (BBC ) start television service for the London area. The Baird Company and Marconi EMI were chosen by the BBC to be the suppliers for television.
1936 - Farnsworth and Berlin to make a licensing agreement with Fernseh AG, who worked closely with the Baird Company. Fernseh was headed by Dr. Paul Goerz who had been appointed by the German Reich as the co-ordinator for radio and television, although he was not a Nazi.
1936 - During Farnsworth's German trip, a disastrous fire swept through the Crystal Palace and destroyed all of the Baird equipment which had been based on Farnsworth's work. It was a huge disappointment for the inventor who returned sadly to Philadelphia with a distorted piece of melted glass. This represented all that was left of Farnsworth's dissector tube which would have been used in the camera made ready for the first broadcast.
1937 - Fernseh, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) signed an agreement with Farnsworth July 22, 1937 giving Farnsworth and AT&T the right to use each other's patents. These three agreements helped solidify Farnsworth's reputation with worldwide recognition
• 1937 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 2,089,054 Patent Granted "Incandescent Light Source" Filed March 9, 1936, Granted August 3, 1937. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
1938 - With the advent of World War II however, Farnsworth's close working relationships with the Germans and the British dwindled as the presidents of both of these companies were called to serve their countries.
• 1938 - Although Farnsworth was able to show a remarkably clear image of over a foot square to the Franklin Institute, Philco became restive as expenses mounted. When costs passed a quarter of a million dollars, a lot of money in Depression days, Philco pulled out. Farnsworth's money men tried to sell his patents outright in 1938.
• 1939 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 2,1849,10 Patent Granted "Cold Cathode Electron Discharge Tube" Filed Nov. 4, 1936, Granted Dec. 26, 1939. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1939 - Farnsworth and RCA
• 1939 - In 1939, RCA obtained a license from Farnsworth to produce electronic television transmission systems that combined his technology with theirs. Farnsworth later conducted research on radar and nuclear energy. Zworykin And Sarnoff went to California a couple of months later -- to see what Philo was up to in his laboratory. Later Zworykin was said to have claimed that RCA wouldn't need anything Farnsworth had done. Then RCA's tough chief, David Sarnoff, came to take a look. He echoed Zworykin. But later RCA found that it very badly needed some of Farnsworth's patents and paid for rights on a royalty arrangement.
••• The young American and the Russian emigre worked contemporaneously, though separately, to develop television. When Farnsworth applied for an electronic television patent he really shook RCA, whose laboratories under Vladimir Zworykin had long been struggling with the problem. RCA challenged the application.
• 1940 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 2,221,374 Patent Granted "X-ray Projection Device" Filed March 22, 1937, Granted Nov. 12, 1940. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1941 - Pearl Harbor and Radar Equipment. But the price, due to high development costs, was over a million dollars and they were unsuccessful. The syndicate then decided to go it alone and bought the Capehart Corporation in Fort Wayne, Indiana, to manufacture television sets. But Pearl Harbor ended any such possibilities and Farnsworth's company built radar equipment instead.
• 1941 - PATENT - Farnsworth's, U.S. Patent 2,263,032 Patent Granted "Cold Cathode Electron Discharge Tube.
Filed Nov. 4, 1936, Granted Nov. 18, 1941
.
CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
1942 - For years Farnsworth and his partners had refused to get involved with the manufacturing of television sets, yet they finally broke this barrier when they bought the Capehart Company of Fort Wayne, Indiana. Up to that time , Capehart had been known best for its large coin music boxes installed in bars, dance halls, and restaurants.
• 1957 - Farnsworth sole appearance on national television was as a mystery guest on the CBS game show "I've Got a Secret" in 1957. He fielded questions from the celebrity panelists as they tried in vain to guess his secret ("I invented electronic television"). For stumping them, Farnsworth took home $80 and a carton of Winston cigarettes.
• 1966 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 3,258,402 Patent Granted "Electric Discharge Device For Producing Interaction Between Nuclei" Filed Jan. 11, 1962, Granted June 28, 1966. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1968 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 3,386,883 Patent Granted "Method and Apparatus For Producing Nuclear Fusion Reactions" Filed May 13, 1966, Granted June 4, 1968. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
1969 - In the late 1960s, Television International reporter, Bob Foster, was invited by Farnsworth's sister to visit the inventor at his home. At that time Farnsworth was a member of the board of International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT) which had taken over the Capehart-Farnsworth Company. Wrote Foster, " ITT was trying to acquire the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). SEE MORE STORY ABOUT TVI BOB FOSTER ARTICLE.
• 1971 - Forty-five years later (and three decades after his death in 1971), "I've Got a Secret" could still be the slogan for Farnsworth, and his 94-year-old widow, Pam, who worked at his side through much of his career.
1971 - PHILO DIES, March 11, 1971. Broke, Philo returned to Salt Lake City and bought a home that he died on March 11, 1971. Although there is no inventor single-handedly responsible for television, Farnsworth played an extremely important part in its history. As long as he received his due credit, he was content to share the limelight with his fellow inventors, Vladimir Zworykin and John Logie Baird. Sources: TVInews - The Story of Television "Philo T. Farnsworth's Role in the History of Television." Bob Foster.
• 1972 - PATENT - (Farnsworth Reference) Hirsch's U.S. Patent 3,664,920 Patent Granted "Electrostatic Containment In Fusion Reactors" Application No. 738940, Filed June 21, 1968, Granted May 23, 1972. Inventor R. Hirsch, Assignee: Int'l Telephone and Telegraph Corp., Nutley , NJ. Reference Cited: Farnsworth 3,258,402 June 11966. Reference Cited Farnsworth 3,386,883 June 1968. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 2002 - Emmys 2002. On The 100th and 75th Anniversary of Radio and TV, Hollywood Forgets One Of The SMART DAAF BOYS -- The Inventor and Patent Holders of Radio and Television, Nathan Stubblefield and Philo Farnsworth has been overlooked, as the medium celebrates the Emmys 2002. SEE MORE STORY IN EDITORS NOTE /
03 /  PATENT NOTES

• 1937 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 2,089,054 Patent Granted "Incandescent Light Source" Filed March 9, 1936, Granted August 3, 1937. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1939 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 2,1849,10 Patent Granted "Cold Cathode Electron Discharge Tube" Filed Nov. 4, 1936, Granted Dec. 26, 1939. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1940 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 2,221,374 Patent Granted "X-ray Projection Device" Filed March 22, 1937, Granted Nov. 12, 1940. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1941 - PATENT - Farnsworth's, U.S. Patent 2,263,032 Patent Granted "Cold Cathode Electron Ddischarge Tube.
Filed Nov. 4, 1936, Granted Nov. 18, 1941.
CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.

• 1966 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 3,258,402 Patent Granted "Electric Discharge Device For Producing Interaction Between Nuclei" Filed Jan. 11, 1962, Granted June 28, 1966. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1968 - PATENT - Farnsworth's U.S. Patent 3,386,883 Patent Granted "Method and Apparatus For Producing Nuclear Fusion Reactions" Filed May 13, 1966, Granted June 4, 1968. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1972 - PATENT - (Farnsworth Reference) Hirsch's U.S. Patent 3,664,920 Patent Granted "Electrostatic Containment In Fusion Reactors" Aplication No. 738940, Filed June 21, 1968, Granted May 23, 1972. Inventor R. Hirsch, Assigneee: Int'l Telephone and Telegraph Corp., Nutley , NJ. Reference Cited: Farnsworth 3,258,402 June 11966. Reference Cited Farnsworth 3,386,883 June 1968. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.

• 1931 - MAXWELL'S ETHER THEORY DIES - November, 13, 1931. The one-hundredth anniversary of Clerk Maxwell's birth was marked by the scientific world "digging a grave for the theory of a luminiferous ether," but at the same time honoring Maxwell's mathematical genius.

4. Related Stories / RCA and Farnsworth- 1939
• 1939 - In 1939, RCA obtained a license from Farnsworth to produce electronic television transmission systems that combined his technology with theirs. Farnsworth later conducted research on radar and nuclear energy. Zworykin And Sarnoff went to California a couple of months later -- to see what Philo was up to in his laboratory.
••• Later Zworykin was said to have claimed that RCA wouldn't need anything Farnsworth had done. Then RCA's tough chief, David Sarnoff, came to take a look. He echoed Zworykin. But later RCA found that it very badly needed some of Farnsworth's patents and paid for rights on a royalty arrangement.
••• Prior to coming to the United States, Vladimir Zworykin had been Rosing's assistant as a graduate student in St. Petersburg, and later an officer in the Czar's army during World War I. He escaped to the United States in 1919, after the Russian revolution. (Rosing was arrested during the revolution and died before he could make any further progress with his ideas).
••• The young American and the Russian emigre worked contemporaneously, though separately, to develop television. When Farnsworth applied for an electronic television patent he really shook RCA, whose laboratories under Vladimir Zworykin had long been struggling with the problem. RCA challenged the application.
••• Its lawyers, in proceedings claiming interference, sharply questioned Farnsworth for many hours, but failed to break him down. He got his patent in 1930, when he was twenty-four years old. During the early 1930s, Philco became Farnsworth's chief backer.
••• Although Farnsworth was able to show a remarkably clear image of over a foot square to the Franklin Institute, Philco became restive as expenses mounted. When costs passed a quarter of a million dollars, a lot of money in Depression days, Philco pulled out. Farnsworth's money men tried to sell his patents outright in 1938.
••• But the price, due to high development costs, was over a million dollars and they were unsuccessful. The syndicate then decided to go it alone and bought the Capehart Corporation in Fort Wayne, Indiana, to manufacture television sets. But Pearl Harbor ended any such possibilities and Farnsworth's company built radar equipment instead.

TELEVISION and ALEXANDERSON
Dr. Alexanderson was also instrumental in the development of television. The first television broadcast in the United States was to his GE Plot home at 1132 Adams Road in 1927.
Over his lifetime, Dr. Alexanderson received 345 patents, the last awarded in 1973 at age 94. The inventor and engineer remained active to an advanced age, working as a consultant to GE and RCA in the 1950s.
Dr. Alexanderson Was a prolific inventer and his inventive genius touched many different fields. Some of his inventions in communication included the magnetic amplifier, the electronic amplifier, the multiple tuned antenna, the anti-static receiving antenna, radio altimeters, television in 1928, and in 1924 the first facsimile across the Atlantic, which included a hand written greeting to his father in Sweden. In other fields such as power and control, he designed single phase motors for railway electrification, used by Pennsylvania R.R. system, worked out a system for regenerative breaking of direct current series motors used on the St. Paul R.R. locomotives. The amplidyne and thyratron motors were among some of the 320 patents issued to him during his 46 years with General Electric Co. (One for every month, give or take a few days).
Dr. Alexanderson retired in 1948 -- but continued as a consultant for another year. He was 97 when he died on May 14, 1975, at his home in Schenectady, N.Y. Dr. Alexanderson was widowed twice, and was survived by his third wife Thyra and son Werner; also three daughters and nine grandchildren.
In 1983, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

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