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2006/Images/back.gifYes90/109 TESLA - SMART90com/tesla

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Nikola Tesla
- (1856-1943)
the "T" in "Smart Daaf Boys"
The inventors that put the Pizzazz in Radio Wave. (Get free copies of NBS - U.S. Wireless Telephone Patents)

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Nikola Tesla
(1856-1943)

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Nikola Tesla
(1856-1943)
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Tesla was the Inventor and patent holder of most of the parts for the AC 60 cycle Generator - motor before he assigned his rights to Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, American for a reported, $1-million in cash.
••• NIKOLA TESLA WAS BORN on July 10, 1856 in Smiljan, Croatia, and was raised in strict Christian Orthodox environment. His father, Milutin Tesla, was the priest of the local parish and his mother Djuka was a devout follower of the faith. He was the second son, and was one of five children, having one brother and three sisters.
••• Tesla's legacy can be seen across modern civilization wherever a land-line high-voltage electricity utility is connected to a home or office to power your radio, television or other ancillary devices plugged into wall sockets.
••• Aside from his work on electric motors that generate high-voltage currents, Tesla is said to have contributed in varying degrees to the fields of robotics, ballistics, computer science, nuclear physics, theoretical physics, electromagnetism and dam building.
••• The Tesla AC Generator - motor, induction coil high-voltage concept was first used by the Westinghouse Electric Company to install the electrical power turbines in the 1886, Niagara Falls River Dam Project.
••• The "Tesla Coil" device is the coil device that transformed the electrical power generated by the Dam's turbine motors being spun by the hydro water tunnels flowing into the dam. The "Tesla Coil" device is a transformer with an air core that has both its primary and secondary tuned in resonance.
••• The induction coils had the ability to convert high-voltage electricity into usable AC current that could be flowed through copper land-lines from Niagara Falls to light-up Buffalo, New York, 28 miles away.
••• Steam or gasoline engines were substituted to power the Tesla AC generators in cities not serviced by dams, or the old mill stream,
••• Tesla's major competitors were Marconi, Fessenden, Alexanderson, Armstrong. Edison and GE contended that it was an illusionary dream of Tesla's financial backers that Tesla could transmit high-voltage through space to light-up country towns.
••• Did Tesla personally transmit the Wireless Telephony and Telegraphy Morse Code through space before Marconi, Stubblefield or Fessenden? No, but others did by purchasing one of his AC generators, or pluging their radio transmitter into a hot wired wall socket..
••• As the Stubblefield, Tesla friendship grew, Stubblefield named his son William Tesla Stubblefield, born, May 7, 1905. - Continue For More

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Continued from above - Believe it or not, in the days of Tesla, before wireless telephony was renamed "Radio," the word "phony" -- bothered everyone in the wireless, especially those in the motor - electric generator industry like Tesla, Edison and Westinghouse.

CLICK FOR MORE TESLA HISTORY: People Section - Nikola Tesla -
INCLUDES: EARLY YEARS and the "Sixth Sense"
CLICK TO SEE 1907 AUTO PATENT DRAWING.
••• It took 100 years after the Stubblefield Wireless Telephone™ patent was filed, before the first group of Wireless Telephone™ frequencies were sold by the FCC for over $30-billions of dollars. (1996),. - CLICK FOR FCC FREQUENCY SALES REPORT
CLICK MORE ABOUT: FESSENDEN WINS LAW SUIT AGAINST THE RADIO TRUST, General Electric Company, the Radio Corporation of America, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Western Electric Company, Inc., United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Appliance company.
••• "I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device." - Nikola Tesla; Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1931. CLICK FOR MORE: People Section - Nikola Tesla -

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02 / The Smart-Daaf Boys TimeLine / NIKOLA TESLA - The Early Days
• FOR YEARS 1856 To 1890 -
• 1856 - Nikola Tesla was born in Smiljan, Croatia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian military frontier on July 10 (in the Gregorian calendar), June 28 (Julian calendar; to Milutin Tesla, a priest of the Orthodox Church, and his wife Djuka and was christened by the Serb orthodox priest, Toma Oklobdija. He was a Serbian of Valachian descent.
• 1862-1866 - attends elementary school in Smiljan and Gospic.
• 1884-1885 - Upon his arrival in the United States, Tesla becomes Edison's associate, offering him his diligence and abilities. However, he fails to get Edison interested in his induction motor and other inventions in the field of polyphase alternating currents so that, after only a year, these two great men part company, and after Edison refused to give him his promised sum. CLICK FOR COMPLET 1856 TO 1890 TIMELINE: People Section - Nikola Tesla -
• 1891 To 1943 - /
• 1891 - On February 21, 1891, Tesla publishes his article "Phenomena of alternate currents of very high frequency" in Electrical World, Vol. XVII, No. 8".
• 1891 - A set of experiments, on what Tesla called "a simpler device" for the production of electric oscillations, resulted in the device known today as the Tesla Coil. A Tesla Coil is a transformer made up of two parts - a primary and secondary coil, one inside the other. When electrically charged the interaction between the two coils produces a voltage high enough to make the air conduct electric currents. Getting the power high enough to make the air an effective conductor of currents is key to wireless transmission of radio waves.
Tesla pursued the application of his coil technology to radio. By tuning a coil to a specific frequency he showed that the radio signal could be greatly magnified through resonant action. However, before he was able to fully demonstrate sending a radio signal 50 miles, his laboratory and equipment were destroyed in a fire.
Thus, when Marconi made his famous 1901 Trans-Atlantic transmission, the power portion of his system was based on Tesla's findings. In fact, Tesla and Marconi remained in legal battles for patent priority even after both men died.
• 1891 - On February 4, 1891, Tesla applies for a patent for the production of high frequency currents by means of a condenser discharge.
• 1891 - On April 24, 1891, Tesla applies for a patent for a high frequency transformer.
• 1891 - On May 20, 1891, Tesla gives his famous lecture "Experiments with alternate currents of very high frequency and their application to methods of artificial illumination" before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
• 1891 - Tesla becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States at the age of 35, on July 30, 1891. He establishes his 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York during this same year. Later, Tesla would establish his Houston Street laboratory in New York at 46 E. Houston Street. He lit vacuum tubes wirelessly at both of the New York locations, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission.
• 1892- Journey To Europe
• 1892-1894 - Early Experiments in Radio Technology
• 1892 - On February 3, 4, and 19, 1892, Tesla delivers a series of lectures in London, before the Association of Electrical Engineers and the Royal Society, and in Paris, before International Association of Electric Engineers and the French Society of Physicists, on the subject of "Experiments with alternate currents of high potential and high frequency". In these lectures, Tesla laid the foundations for his ideas of radio technology.
• 1892 - The death of his mother. Receiving the news of his mother's illness, Tesla cancels the lectures planned for March and April in some other large European cities and, for the second time since his coming to the States, visits his homeland, arriving hours before his mother's death. After her death, Tesla fell ill. He spent two to three weeks recuperating in Gospic´ and the village of Tomingaj near Gracac, Croatia, the birthplace of his mother.
• 1892 - May 1892, a visit to Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, where he was received as a national hero.
Tesla also visits the Croation capital Zagreb where he gives a lecture about alternating current. Besides being a great inventor Tesla was an outspoken Serbian patriot. He had never hidden his patriotic feelings and was proud of his Croatian motherland and Serbian descent.
• 1892
-
By 1892, Tesla became aware of what Wilhelm Röntgen later identified as effects of X-rays.
• 1892-1894 - Tesla served as the vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now part of the IEEE).
• 1893 - In 1883, the Niagara Falls Power Company, contracts with George Westinghouse to design a system to generate alternating current.
• 1893 - On February 24 and March 1, 1893, Tesla gives lectures in Philadelphia before the Franklin Institute and in St. Louis before the National Electrical Light Association: "On light and other high frequency phenomena". In Philadelphia he presents a more detailed plan of wireless radio telegraphy, including antenna-earth link and resonating electric current circuits.
• 1896 - The Niagara Falls Power Company, completes construction of the giant underground conduits leading to turbines generating upwards of 100,000 horsepower (75 MW), and were sending power as far as Buffalo, twenty miles (32 km) away. The project was reported to be financed by the J.P. Morgan, John Jacob Astor IV, and Vanderbilt Hedge Fund consorium.
• 1896 - Tesla discovers during his various Motor - Induction Coil spark electricity experiments, that he could generate and develope high frequency and high potential alternating currents. The results was the development of the "Tesla coil." This device is a transformer with an air core that has both its primary and secondary tuned in resonance.
1893-1898 - From 1893 to 1898, Tesla protects by patents his various discoveries in the field of high frequency currents, including a large number of oscillators with an ingenious device for extinguishing the sparks.
• 1894 - In 1894, Tesla erects his first small radio station in his laboratory and begins his experiments in radio technology. At the same time, he builds his first radio-controlled automata.
• 1893 - From 1893 to 1895, Tesla investigated high frequency alternating currents. He generated AC of one million volts using a conical Tesla coil and investigated the skin effect in conductors, designed tuned circuits, invented a machine for inducing sleep, cordless gas discharge lamps, and transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires, effectively building the first radio transmitter.
• 1893 - In St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla made a demonstration related to radio communication. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail its principles. Tesla's demonstrations were written about widely through various media outlets.
• 1893 - At the 1893 World's Fair, the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, an international exposition was held which for the first time devoted a building to electrical exhibits. It was a historic event as Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by using it to illuminate the Exposition. On display were Tesla's fluorescent lights and single node bulbs. Tesla also explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make an egg made of copper stand on end in his demonstration of the device he constructed known as the "Egg of Columbus." The successful lighting of the Expo was then a factor in Westinghouse winning the contract to install the first hydroelectric power machinery at Niagara Falls. All of the enormous motors at the power station bore Tesla's name and patent numbers.
• 1894 - Tesla became very close friends with Mark Twain and they spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere. Tesla was also friends with Robert Underwood Johnson. He had amicable relations with, among others, Francis Marion Crawford, Stanford White, Fritz Lowenstein, George Scherff, and Kenneth Swezey, but he remained bitter towards Edison. The day after Edison died the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying, "He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that, "His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 per cent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense."

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• 1895 - Continuation of Radio Technology Experiments
• 1895 - On March 13, 1895, fire destroys Tesla's laboratory with the radio station, the constructed automata, his first models of induction motors and other polyphase system devices as well as a valuable technical archive.
• 1895 - The hydro-electric station was commissioned on 20th April 1895 with three water driven alternators each of 5,000 HP. Although not getting any financial reward, Tesla was acclaimed for his inventiveness and feted at dinners given in his honor.
• 1895 - Tesla and Edison became adversaries in part due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current advocated by Tesla and Westinghouse. Until Tesla invented the induction motor, AC 's advantages for long distance high voltage transmission were counterbalanced by the inability to operate motors on AC. As a result of the "War of Currents," Edison and Westinghouse were almost bankrupt.
• 1895 -
Tesla in 1895 lost everything when his laboratory went up in smoke. Friends including M.r Adams, a banking associate of J.P. Morgan, helped him set up a new laboratory in Houston Street, New York with a grant of $40,000.
• • It took him two years to rebuild the radio system from his head, which he then patented, but was unable to persuade anyone to invest in his ideas. He staged an impressive demonstration in Madison Square Gardens, where he had a large tank of water on which floated a boat. He directed its movement by remote radio control. He even managed to get the boat to submerge still controlling its underwater movement. He claimed he could design a remote controlled submarine torpedo boat, but the US Navy never took him up the idea. He was experimenting with very high voltages for the time, and had the vision of transmitting power through the air i.e. without wires. This tended to give him a bad name with other engineers and the technical press. They were uncertain of taking his wild predictions seriously.
• 1896-09 - In his new laboratory, Tesla continues with his experiments in a System of Transmission of Electrical Energy using grounded induction coils. Granted March 20,1900. - Patent Filed Sept. 2, 1897, CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
radio technology.
1896-1024 - Stubblefield Patent finling. October 24, 1896. Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent - United States Patent No. 600,457, Granted May 8, 1898. Click to Go To US Patent Office -- then Click Full Text to refresh page. Applie for: October 24, 1896. PATENT WAS ISSUED TO STUBBLEFIELD FOR the ELECTROLYTIC COIL. The Patent was referred to as the: Electrolitic Water Battery, the Electrolitic Oscilating Coil, the Induction Coil, Earth Battery, Undamped Transmitting Coils, The Stubblefield's Electrolytic Detector. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1896-12 - Marconi - Granted U.S. Patent 0586193, Marconi "Transmitting Electrical Signals" For Table Top Morse Code finger operation. (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key) filed Dec. 7, 1896, Granted July 13, 1897. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1896 - Still experimenting with resonance in 1896, he created a small earthquake. This shook buildings in a radius of a dozen square blocks, so that the rumbles reached the local police station, and a squad of policemen was dispatched to his laboratory. They arrived there only to find that he had smashed the offending equipment with a sledgehammer. At this time Tesla published the complete description of the Tesla/Thomson coil in electrical journals (Elect. Review 1896), which was described as a high frequency, high voltage (10,000 &endash; 15,000 volts) transformer with no iron core. By 1899 Tesla was running short of money again and a dangerous situation was developing with such high voltages wafting around a confined laboratory.
• 1897-07 - Marconi - Granted U.S. Patent 0586193, Marconi "Transmitting Electrical Signals" For Table Top Morse Code finger operation. (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key) filed Dec. 7, 1896, Granted July 13, 1897. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1897-09 - PATENT filing - Granted 1900. Tesla's U.S. Patent 645, 654,576 -- 649,621,314 for his basic plans for induction spark electricity signaling coil device with resonating electric current circuits, on September 2, 1897. System of Transmission of Electrical Energy. - Granted March 20,1900. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1897 - PATENT filing -
Granted 1900. Tesla's U.S. Patent 649,621 314 Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy, Filed Sept. 2, 1897, Granted May 15, 1900.
• 1897
-
In the spring of 1897, near New York, Tesla erects a new and bigger radio station and sends radio signals over a distance of more than 40 km.
• 1897 - Tesla releases Westinghouse from contract, providing Westinghouse a break from Tesla's patent royalties. Westinghouse, buoyed up by this success and renewed fortune, decided to put forward a quotation for building a hydro-electric scheme for the Niagara River. This idea had been mooted as long ago as 1886 and a Commission had been appointed with Lord Kelvin, described as an eminent British engineer, as the Chairman and consultant. Westinghouse's company did not have enough money to build the scheme, although it had the Tesla AC patents, so he approached Edison's company, which was now called General Electric, an amalgamation of Edison General Electric and Thomson Houston, who had the capital with a well-known banker, J.P. Morgan behind them. But they did not have the necessary AC polyphase system, so that a deal was brokered for the two companies to set about designing a suitable scheme. They appointed George Forbes, a Scottish engineer in charge of the project.
1898 0508 - Stubblefield Patent Granted. finling. October 24, 1896. Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent - United States Patent No. 600,457, Granted May 8, 1898. Click to Go To US Patent Office -- then Click Full Text to refresh page. Applie for: October 24, 1896. PATENT WAS ISSUED TO STUBBLEFIELD FOR the ELECTROLYTIC COIL. The Patent was referred to as the: Electrolitic Water Battery, the Electrolitic Oscilating Coil, the Induction Coil, Earth Battery, Undamped Transmitting Coils, The Stubblefield's Electrolytic Detector.
• 1898 - PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 613,809 318 Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles, Filed July 1, 1898, Granted Nov. 8, 1898.
• 1898 - PATENT - Tesla's U,S, Patent 609,250 Electrical Ignitor for Gas Engines, Filed Feb. 17, 1897, Granted August 16, 1998. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
Radio Station
• 1898 - In the beginning of 1898, at a sea-coast near New York, Tesla conducts his famous experiment controlling, by radio, the movements of a boat model out on the sea from the distance of several kilometers.
• 1898 -
On July 1, 1898, Tesla is granted patent 613 809 for his discoveries underlying radio communication.
• 1899 - In 1899, in Colorado, Tesla erects a big, 200 kW radio station and establishes wireless telegraphy at a distance of over 1000 km. He conducts successful experiments with wireless transmission of larger amounts of electric power. He achieves frequencies of up to 20 million volts and invents a special apparatus, the "magnifying" transmitter.
• 1900 - In 1900, Tesla undertakes preparations for the construction of the World Telegraphy radio station.• 1901-1905 - The construction of the World Telegraphy radio-station on Long Island. 1901. Publication of the prospectus "World System".
• 1899 - PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 685,955 331 "Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted" from a Distance to a Receiving Device Through Natural Media" Filed June 24, 1899, Granted Nov. 1, 1901.
• 1899 -
PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 685,953 338 "Method of Intensifying and Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media" Filed June 24, 1899, Granted Nov. 5, 1901.
• 1899 -
PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 685,954 344 "Method of Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media" Filed Aug. 1, 1899, Granted Nov. 5, 1901.
• 1899 -
PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 685,956 353 "Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media" Filed Aug. 1, 1899, Granted Nov. 1, 1901.
• 1899 -
Tesla moves to Colorado Springs, Colorado where he would have room for his high-voltage, high-frequency experiments. A friend offered him a piece of land at Colorado Springs to build a bigger laboratory. He borrowed some money and set off for Colorado, leaving his New York laboratory in the hands of his capable and loyal assistant, George Scherff. Upon his arrival he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris. Tesla's diary contains explanations of his experiments concerning the ionosphere and the ground's telluric currents via transverse waves and longitudinal waves. At his lab, Tesla proved that the earth was a conductor, and he produced artificial lightning (with discharges consisting of millions of volts, and up to 135 feet long). Tesla also investigated atmospheric electricity, observing lightning signals via his receivers. Reproductions of Tesla's receivers and coherer circuits show an unpredicted level of complexity (e.g., distributed high-Q helical resonators, radio frequency feedback, crude heterodyne effects, and regeneration techniques). Tesla stated that he observed stationary waves during this time. In the Colorado Springs lab, he "recorded" signals of what he believed were extraterrestrial radio signals, though these announcements and his data were rejected by the scientific community. He noted measurements of repetitive signals from his receiver which are substantially different from the signals he had noted from storms and earth noise.
• 1900 - Tesla left Colorado Springs on January 7, 1900. The lab was torn down and its contents sold to pay debts. He had run out of capital again and returned to New York with the intention of realising some money on his discoveries. He patented these ideas and commenced writing articles in many magazines. He claimed that would be able to transmit electricity through the air to customers providing "free electricity". Another idea was conducting electricity through the Earth. He proposed a "World System" of communications, involving 12 aspects, most of which have been realized, including a synchronous motor (AC) for accurate time-keeping. The main financier of General Electric, J.P. Morgan, heard of these outrageous statements and that he was broke again. Morgan in a surprisingly altruistic gesture agreed to make a "no strings attached" gift of $150,000 to get him off the ground with his World System. With what he perceived as the complete backing of Morgan, Tesla set out to build a large transmitting station at Wardencliff, Long Island, 60 miles from New York, but within a year had run out of money again. He approached Morgan for a second time, but JPM refused to dole out any more cash. It is believed that Morgan considered the new project may have undermined the thriving electricity industry, which he controlled.
• 1900 - with $150,000 (51% from J. Pierpont Morgan), Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility. In June 1902, Tesla's lab operations were moved to Wardenclyffe from Houston Street. The tower was finally dismantled for scrap during wartime. Newspapers of the time labeled Wardenclyffe "Tesla's million-dollar folly.".
• 1900 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 645,576 307 System of Transmission of Electrical Energy, Filed Sept. 2, 1897, Granted March 20,1900. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
1900 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 11,865 Method Of Insulating Electric Conductors, Granted Oct. 23, 1900. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1900-10 - Marconi
7777 US Patent 763,772. Marconi "Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy" Filed Nov. 10 1900 , Issued June 28, 1904. Marconi took out his famous "four seven's" patent No. 7777 for "tuned or syntonic telegraphy" The 1904 U.S. version of the 7777 patent,  US patent No. 763,772, was found to be invalid in a celebrated 1943 Supreme Court decision. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1900 - PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 787,412 361 "Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums" Filed May 16, 1900, Granted April 18, 1905.
• 1900 -
PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 723,188 367 "Method of Signaling" Filed July 16, 1900, Granted March 17, 1903.
• 1900 -
PATENT - Tesla's US Patent 725,605 372 "System of Signaling" Filed July 16, 1900, Granted April 14, 1903.
• 1900 - U.S. Patent 654390, Fessenden "Induction-coil" Granted July 24, 1900. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1901 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 685,012 Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillation, Filed March 1, 1900, Granted Oct. 22, 1901. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
• 1902 01 - PATENT Filing - Tesla's U.S. Patent 1,119,732 378 Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy, Filed Jan. 18, 1902, Granted Dec. 1, 1914.
1902 03 - Stubblefield's - Worlds First Ship To Shore Radio Wireless Telephone Broadcast - Washington, D.C. Demonstration. TESLA ATTENDS. On March 20, 1902, Stubblefield set up a demonstration on the Potomac River in Washington, utilizing his "groundless antenna" connected to the mast of the ship.
• 1902 - Stubblefield's Wireless Telephone Company Of America - Incorporation Papers - Filed In Prescott, Arizona, on May 22, 1902. Gehring, Stubblefield And Fennell, incorporated their new company in the State of Arizona, 75% of the Collins' Wireless Telephone Company was given to Stubblefield, for the patent rights in Canada.
• 1902 - Stubblefield's Wireless Telephone Company Of America - Incorporation Papers - Filed In Prescott, Arizona, on May 22, 1902. Gehring, Stubblefield And Fennell, incorporated their new company in the State of Arizona, 75% of the Collins' Wireless Telephone Company was given to Stubblefield, for the patent rights in Canada.
• 1902 - 05 - Stubblefield's - Philadelphia Wireless Radio Telephone Demonstration - - TESLA ATTENDS On May 30, 1902, just a little over two months after this Washington Demonstration, Stubblefield gave demonstrations of his wireless telephone in Philadelphia at the Belmont Mansion.
• 1902 - 06 - Stubblefield's Philadelphia Wireless Telephone Demonstration - TESLA ATTENDS On June 7, 1902, Stubblefield again demonstrated his apparatus in Philadelphia. This test took place on the banks of the Schuylkill River, from the Belmont Pumping Station To The Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge, a distance of about one and one half miles. -- Miller
• 1902 - 0611 - Stubblefield's New York Demonstration - is held jointly with his Wireless Telephone Company Of America - to show case his newly designed arial and speaker system apparatus In Battery Park, New York City. What is the Relevancy of Stubblefield's wireless telephone to the Internet? In this exhibit, again, one of the transmitters was connected directly to the local telephone company's switch board for mass party-line broadcasting.
• 1902 - U.S. Patent 706740, Fessenden "Wireless Signaling" (heterodyne principle) Filed Sept. 20, 1901, Granted August 12, 1902. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1903 - U.S. Patent RE12115, Fessenden "Receiver for Electromagnetic Waves" -- duplicate of 727331 May 5, 1903, reissued May 26, 1903. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1904 - the US Patent Office reversed its decision and awarded Guglielmo Marconi the patent for Wireless Telegraphy, and Tesla began his fight to re-acquire the signal patent. On his 50th birthday in 1906, Tesla demonstrated his 200 hp (150 kW) 16,000 rpm Bladeless Turbine. During 1910&endash;1911 at the Waterside Power Station in New York, several of his bladeless turbine engines were tested at 100&endash;5000 hp.
1905 - PATENT LAWS - Revised (1905, STATUTE: SEC. 4886).
1905 - May 7th. Nathan Stubblefield and Ada Mae, name their son William Tesla, after their friend and collegue. (The boy died 17 months later, - 1906). MORE GRAVE SIGHT STORY.
• 1906 - Tesla abandoned his fight to re-acquire the signal patent. project.
• 1906 - Another kind friend lent him some money to develop a bladeless steam turbine. Within four years Tesla had produced two turbines, each developing 100 HP. He persuaded GE to let him test them in their New York power station. He installed them setting them up in opposition to each other and thus his demonstration was poor.
• 1906 - The Government of Ontario, Canada votes the Niagra Falls power transmission operations as a public controled entity. Electic Power Lines distributed Niagara's energy to various parts of that province. Currently between 50% and 75% of the Niagara River's flow is diverted via four huge tunnels that passes through hydroelectric turbines that supply power to nearby areas of the United States and Canada before returning to the river well past the Falls. The most powerful hydroelectric stations on the Niagara River are Sir Adam Beck 1 and 2 on the Canadian side, and the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant and the Lewiston Pump Generating Plant on the American side. All together, Niagara's generating stations can produce about 4.4 GW of power.
• 1906- On December 24, 1906, at 9 P.M. eastern standard time, Reginald Fessenden, with an upgraded Alexanderson alternator and with Alexanderson in attendance, prepared and performed their first speech and phonograph music program from the Brant Rock station.
-- The Christmas Eve Broadcast occurred the same year Tesla's Westinghouse patent for his 60-cycle electrical AC generator expired. The private broadcast demonstration was reported to have been received by ships at sea, with look-a-like GE -- Fessenden receivers, up and down the coast, inland some distance in New York State and Maryland -- and as far away as 100 miles.
••• Ships at sea with a same like receiver, were said to hear the broadcast that included Fessenden playing the song O Holy Night on the violin and reading a passage from the Bible.
••• The purported voice broadcast was four years after Smart Daaf Boy Marconi's Dit Dah Morse Code signal "S" was heard by Marconi from England to Newfoundland in 1901, and Stubblefield ship to shore two-way wireless telephone broadcast in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C., in 1902. Fessenden attended the event.
1907 0228 - THE FIRT RADIO STOCK CORPORATION. DeForest RADIO TELEPHONE COMPANY - On February 28, 1907 - the first Wireless Telephone company USING the new WORD "RADIO".
1907 0405 - Stubblefield WIRELESS TELEPHONE SYSTEM FILED Nathan B. Stubblefield's Wireless Telephone Patent Application Filed Apr. 5, 1907, Serial No. 366,544 -Room 109. The first permanent wireless telephone broadcasting installation was in January, 1892. The station was constructed in Murray, Kentucky, by Stubblefield's Teleph-on-del-green Industrial College, on the campus where Murray State University is now located, Click to Go To US Patent Office -- then Click Full Text to refresh page.
Machine Engineering
1908 0512 - PATENT: Stubblefield Received His All Purpose - Wireless Telephone Patent, Number 887,357 Click to Go To US Patent Office -- then Click Full Text to refresh page. - (Patent Expires May 12, 1925)
• 1908 - In February 1908, Tesla signs a contract with American and British Manufacturing Company and begins experiments with a new principle of power transmission from fluids and to fluids.
• 1908-1910 - From 1908 to 1910, Tesla experiments with pumps, compressors, blowers and steam and gas turbines.

• 1913 - In 1913, Tesla is granted two new patents for a turbine and a pump constructed on a new
• 1914-1918 - Following the same principle, Tesla constructs his speed indicators, gets patents for them, sells them to Waltham Watch Company and achieves commercial success with them.
• 1914 - Tesla started to exhibit pronounced symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the years following. He became obsessed with the number three; he often felt compelled to walk around a block three times before entering a building, demanded a stack of three folded, cloth napkins beside his plate at every meal, etc. The nature of OCD was little understood at the time and no treatments were available, so his symptoms were considered by some to be evidence of partial insanity
• 1914 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 1,119,732 378 Granted, Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy, Filed Jan. 18, 1902, Granted Dec. 1, 1914.
• 1915 -
Since the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Marconi for radio in 1909, Thomas Edison and Tesla were mentioned as potential laureates to share the Nobel Prize of 1915 in a press dispatch, leading to one of several Nobel Prize controversies. Some sources have claimed that due to their animosity toward each other neither was given the award, despite their enormous scientific contributions, and that each sought to minimize the other one's achievements and right to win the award, that both refused to ever accept the award if the other received it first, and that both rejected any possibility of sharing it.
• 1915 - In 1915, Tesla filed a lawsuit against Marconi attempting, unsuccessfully, to obtain a court injunction against the claims of Marconi.
• 1916 - Tesla filed for bankruptcy because he owed so much in back taxes. He was living in poverty. After Wardenclyffe, Tesla built the Telefunken Wireless Station in Sayville, Long Island. Some of what he wanted to achieve at Wardenclyffe was accomplished with the Telefunken Wireless.
• 1917 - In 1917, the Telefunken Wireless Station facility was seized and torn down by the Marines, because it was suspected that it could be used by German spies.
• 1917 - Tesla, in August 1917, first establishes principles regarding frequency and power level for the first primitive RADAR units.
• 1917 - Tesla received AIEE's highest honor, the Edison Medal.
• 1917 - Dismantling of the tower on Long Island.
• 1918-1920 - Tesla works with Allis Chalmers Company, a famous manufacturer of steam turbines, with an aim of making a commercial success of his own steam turbine.
• 1924 - As Tesla neared his 80th birthday, the Foundation of the Tesla Institute was opened in Belgrade, supported by the Yugoslav Government, who gave him a honorarium of $7,000 a year. Today there is a Museum in his honor in Belgrade.
• 1926 - At his 70th birthday dinner put on in his honor in New York, he described his wireless system and, of all things -- a death ray he had invented! He claimed his system was capable of communicating with the planets.
••• Not only was Tesla a hopeless businessman, but also he was pretty careless with money. John O'Neil summed up his problem, saying that he lacked the personality (and character) that made possible the securing of financial returns directly from his inventions. Throughout most of his life, he lived in hotels, the Alta Vista at Colorado Springs, the Waldorf Astoria in New York, until he was thrown out for not paying his bills. He moved on from hotel to hotel, often with other people picking up the bill behind his back.
1921-1925 - From 1921 to 1925, Tesla works with the Budd Company and develops new types of automobile engines for them.
1928-1932 - From 1928 to 1932, Tesla works on material processing technology.
• 1931 - Time Magazine put s Tesla on its cover. The cover caption noted his contribution to electrical power generation. Tesla received his last patent in 1928 for an apparatus for aerial transportation which was the first instance of VTOL aircraft.

ImagesNBS100/NewsPaperHeadlineNBS46w.jpg

ReginaldFessWinsSuit46w.jpg

03 • 1931 - MAXWELL'S ETHER THEORY DIES - November, 13, 1931. The one-hundredth anniversary of Clerk Maxwell's birth was marked by the scientific world "digging a grave for the theory of a luminiferous ether," but at the same time honoring Maxwell's mathematical genius.
1932-1937 - Tesla works on the projects of telegeodynamics and death rays
• 1934 - Tesla wrote to consul Jankovic of his homeland. The letter contained the message of gratitude to Mihajlo Pupin who initiated a donation scheme by which American companies could support Tesla. Tesla refused the assistance, and chose to live by a modest pension received from Yugoslavia and to continue researching.
• 1937- Tesla composed a treatise entitled "The Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-dispersive Energy through the Natural Media" concerning charged particle beams. Tesla published the document in an attempt expound on the technical description of a "superweapon that would put an end to all war". This treatise of the particle beam is currently in the Nikola Tesla Museum archive in Belgrade. It described an open ended vacuum tube with a gas jet seal that allowed particles to exit, a method of charging particles to millions of volts, and a method of creating and directing nondispersive particle streams (through electrostatic repulsion).
1937 - Tesla is hit and injured by a car during one of his regular walks along the streets of New York. Soon after that, he is down with pneumonia of which he never completely recovers.
1943 On January 7, 1943, in New York, Tesla dies of heart failure alone in a hotel room at age 87. Despite selling his AC electricity patents, Tesla was essentially destitute and died with significant debts.
• 1943 - Later that year the US Supreme Court upheld Tesla's patent number 645,576 in effect recognizing him as the inventor of radio.
• 1943 -
Immediately after Tesla's death became known, the Federal Bureau of Investigation instructed the Office of Alien Property to take possession of his papers and property, despite his US citizenship. His safe at the hotel was also opened. At the time of his death, Tesla had been continuing work on the teleforce weapon, or death ray, that he had unsuccessfully marketed to the US War Department. It appears that his proposed death ray was related to his research into ball lightning and plasma and was composed of a particle beam weapon. The U.S. government did not find a prototype of the device in the safe. After the FBI was contacted by the War Department, his papers were declared to be top secret. The so-called "peace ray" constitutes a part of some conspiracy theories as a means of destruction. The personal effects were seized on the advice of presidential advisors, and J. Edgar Hoover declared the case "most secret", because of the nature of Tesla's inventions and patents. One document states that "[he] is reported to have some 80 trunks in different places containing transcripts and plans having to do with his experiments.
• 1943 - Tesla's family and the Yugoslav embassy struggled with the American authorities to gain these items after his death due to the potential significance of some of his research. Eventually, his nephew, Sava Kosanovic˙, got possession of some of his personal effects which are now housed in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, Serbia.
• 1943 - Tesla's funeral took place on January 12, 1943, at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in Manhattan, New York City. After the funeral, his body was cremated.
• 1952 - Tesla did not like to pose for portraits. He did it only once for princess Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy, but that portrait is lost. His wish was to have a sculpture made by his close friend, Croat, Ivan Mestrovic, who was at that time in United States, but he died before getting a chance to see it.
• 1952 - The Tesla bronze bust by Mesrovic is held in the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade.
• 1955-1956 - Mestrovic made a statue placed at the Ruer Boskovic Institute in Zagreb. This statue was moved to Nikola Tesla Street in Zagreb's city centre on the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth, with the Ruer Boskovic Institute to receive a duplicate.
• 1957 - Tesla's
ashes were taken to Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1957. The urn was placed in the Nikola Tesla Museum, where it resides to this day.
• 1976 - A bronze statue of Tesla was placed at Niagara Falls, New York. A similar statue was also erected in his hometown of Gospic in 1986.
• 1977- the Gerlach Hotel, where he lived and where before the end of the century he conducted the radio wave experiments, was renamed The Radio Wave building, at 49 W 27th St. (between Broadway and Sixth Avenue), Lower Manhattan. A commemorative plaque was placed on the building in 1977 to honor his work.
• 2006 - The year of 2006 was proclaimed by UNESCO, as well as the governments of Croatia and Serbia, to be the year of Nikola Tesla. At the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth, July 10th 2006, the renovated village of Smiljan (which had been demolished during the wars of the 1990s) was opened to the public along with Tesla's house (as a memorial museum) and a new multimedia center dedicated to the life and work of Nikola Tesla. The parochial church of St. Peter and Paul, where Tesla's father had held services, was renovated as well. The museum and multimedia center are filled with replicas of Tesla's work. The museum has collected almost all of the papers ever published by, and about, Nikola Tesla, most of these provided by Ljubo Vujovic from the Tesla Memorial Society in New York. Alongside Tesla's house, a monument created by sculptor Mile Blazevic has been erected. In the nearby city of Gospic, on the same date as the reopening of the renovated village and museums, a higher education school named Nikola Tesla was opened, and a replica of the statue of Tesla made by Frano Krsinic (the original is in Belgrade) was presented.
• • In the years after, many of his innovations, theories and claims have been used, at times unsuitably and with some controversy, to support various fringe theories that are regarded as unscientific. Most of Tesla's own work conformed with the principles and methods accepted by science, but his extravagant personality and sometimes unrealistic claims, combined with his unquestionable genius, have made him a popular figure among fringe theorists and believers in conspiracies about 'hidden knowledge'.

MAXWELL'S ETHER THEORY DIES - November, 13, 1931. The one-hundredth anniversary of Clerk Maxwell's birth was marked by the scientific world "digging a grave for the theory of a luminiferous ether," but at the same time honoring Maxwell's mathematical genius.

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Notice to all major Wireless Telephone Companies and Wi-Fi Broadcasters. The Next Century of the Wireless Telephone is waiting for you! Get Ready for 2007 -- the 100th year of the Registration of the Wireless Telephone Patent and its Name.
Photos courtesy of Special Collections and Archives of the Stubblefield Wireless Trust and Murray State University. The Wireless Telephone and other marks © ® and ™ by the Stubblefield Family Fund. www.nbstubblefield.com / www.wirelesstelephone.org

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