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Feature Story - The Inventor of Wireless Telephone
-----07 - Today's Puzzle: Are the survivors of Government Frequency Take Over's commencing in 1908, entitled to payments for their $32 Billion in losses? If you're one of the millions of Nathan B. Stubblefield • Marconi • Ambrose Fleming • Reginald Fessenden • Tesla • DeForest • Armstrong • Alexanderson and Farnsworth fans who think so . . . the following World War II story will help you explain why . . . and the possible legal proceedures. See SMART-DAAF Boys.
-----02 - Wireless and Land line Merges / Nextel /
-----03 - How They Promoted and Sold the Wireless Telephone, Radio in 1908 - A perspective by R.  Burt (Copyright 1908, by United Wireless Telegraph Company (DeForest)
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Feature Story

05 Sprint Agrees to Buy Nextel

The $33.8-billion proposed deal would create a company with 38.5 million customers
----- Furthering the consolidation of the wireless industry, Sprint Corp. on Wednesday unveiled plans to acquire rival Nextel Communications Inc. in a cash and stock deal worth $33.8 billion.
Sprint would remain the country's No. 3 cellular provider, but Nextel's 15.3 million high-revenue subscribers would make the combined company a stronger competitor in a winnowing field. The new company &emdash; to be called Sprint Nextel &emdash; would have 38.5 million customers, compared with Cingular Wireless' 47.6 million subscribers and Verizon Wireless' 42.1 million.
For Nextel, which has won over business users with its walkie-talkie function, the deal would save the company from having to spend as much as $3 billion on network upgrades so that customers could use their phones to send e-mail and other data at high speeds.
In an announcement that had been anticipated for about a week, Sprint and Nextel executives portrayed the deal as a merger of equals that would result in $12 billion in savings over three years.
Many analysts looked favorably on the deal, although it doused rumors of an even bigger consolidation scenario &emdash; Verizon buying Sprint &emdash; that had helped run up Sprint's stock price.
Sprint shares fell $1.08 to $24.02 on the New York Stock Exchange on Wednesday, while Nextel shares dropped $1.29 to $28.70 on Nasdaq.
"It was the old 'buy on the rumor, sell on the news' situation," said Zach Wagner, an analyst with Edward Jones in St. Louis.
Investors may also have been skeptical about some of the cost-cutting forecasts made by Sprint and Nextel executives, said analyst Albert Lin of American Technology Research in San Francisco.
"These are two companies that have very different cultures and different technologies," Lin said. "Saving $1.2 billion to $1.5 billion in the first year &emdash; which they said they could do &emdash; by putting them together is a tall order."
Though cost savings are important, Sprint Chief Financial Officer Robert Dellinger said the biggest long-term benefit for the company would be the addition of Nextel's all-wireless customer base.
"Now we get about 50% of our revenue from wireless," he said. "Putting us together gives us a company that gets about 74% from wireless."
And wireless is the fastest-growing part of the telecom business, Dellinger said.
At least part of that growth is expected to come from data transmission. Sprint is already building a next-generation network for data. Nextel hasn't started building its own next-generation network; by merging with Sprint, it would save an estimated $2 billion to $3 billion, said Nextel Chief Operating Officer Tom Kelly.
If the transaction is approved by regulators and shareholders, the company would spin off Sprint's local telephone business while retaining its long-distance customers. Nextel spokeswoman Audrey Schaefer said the fiber-optic network at the heart of Sprint's long-distance business was a valuable long-term asset.
Consumer advocates fretted that a Sprint-Nextel combination, coming on the heels of Cingular's $41-billion acquisition of AT&T Wireless, would ultimately lead to higher prices. If the deal goes through, the top three wireless carriers would serve about 75% of the country's cellular customers.
"We fear the cellphone market will start to function the way the cable and satellite market has, where prices go up year in and year out due to lack of competition," said Gene Kimmelman, director of public policy at Consumers Union in Washington.
Under terms of the deal, Nextel shareholders would receive stock and a small amount of cash, with a total value equal to 1.3 shares of Sprint. The exact amount of stock and cash will be determined at the close of the deal, though the companies said that if the calculation were made Wednesday, each Nextel share would be worth about 1.28 Sprint shares plus about 50 cents.
Top jobs in Sprint Nextel would be split among the two companies. Sprint Chief Executive Gary Forsee would hold that job at Sprint Nextel, and Nextel CEO Timothy Donahue would become the combined company's chairman. The board would consist of 12 directors, six from each company.
Sprint Nextel would have its executive headquarters in Nextel's current home of Reston, Va., and its operational headquarters would be in Overland Park, Kan., where Sprint is based.


07 - Today's Puzzle: Are the survivors of Government Frequency Take Over's commencing in 1908, entitled to payments for their $32 Billion in losses? If you're one of the millions of Nathan B. Stubblefield • Marconi • Ambrose Fleming • Reginald Fessenden • Tesla • DeForest • Armstrong • Alexanderson and Farnsworth fans who think so . . . the following story will help you explain why . . . and the possible legal proceedures. See SMART-DAAF Boys.

Surviving family members of Jewish Hungarian Nazi war victims,
destroyed by several Governments during war time, seeks payment from U.S.A. -- for loss of tangible property. For the Art work and property lost and stolen during the end of the World War II era, SEE VRA Movie, LOST WOMEN OF ITALY.

----- Now 60 years later the U.S. is facing a critical court hearing this week in December 2004. Justice Department attorneys and lawyers representing Hungarian survivors who have filed the only Holocaust reparations suit against the U.S. government are far from reaching a settlement, parties close to the negotiations said.
The survivors sued in U.S. district court in Miami in May 2001. They are seeking compensation for property seized by the Nazis in 1944 and recovered by the U.S. Army a year later but never returned to the original owners.
  Justice Department lawyers have maintained that the suit should be thrown out for two primary reasons: The statute of limitations had run out years before the suit was filed, and the government was entitled to immunity.
In August 2002, however, U.S. District Judge Patricia A. Seitz said that the plaintiffs were entitled to have the statute of limitations waived, and that the government's immunity argument was only partially valid.
Seitz has been urging the two sides to settle the case. She ordered mediation this year, and Fred F. Fielding, a prominent Washington lawyer, was selected as mediator.
Fielding, who worked in the White House during the Nixon and Reagan administrations and served on the Sept. 11 commission, said recently: "The only thing I can tell you is that we're still at the table. There is a potentially defining moment coming up." He was referring to Monday's hearing on the government's motion to dismiss the case.
A lawyer who has been involved in the negotiations said: "Based on where we are today, it is unlikely that there will be a settlement by next week, because the sides are too far apart." The lawyer, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the sides were divided on two key issues -- the amount of a settlement and what the government would say about its responsibility for events that occurred in 1945.
Rabbi Israel Singer, chairman of the World Jewish Congress, said he had participated in a mediation session on Dec. 6 in Washington. He said the session had "begun to bring the parties to an understanding of the other side's position." However, he added, the two sides were nowhere near agreement on a settlement "sufficient to even address the symbolic nature" of a payment he expected the government eventually to make.
The Justice Department attorneys, Singer said, "have to understand that there are Holocaust survivors in this group who have thrice been harmed -- once by the Nazis, once by the Communists and once by the U.S.".
Members of Congress who have been urging the Bush administration to settle the case have expressed anger and frustration about a lack of progress.
"The response of the Bush administration thus far has been disgraceful," said Rep. Robert Wexler (D-Fla.). "It is incomprehensible why the Bush administration has not followed the same rules and guidelines that we have correctly demanded of other countries and companies" in Holocaust-related litigation, he said. "It's a stain on America."

Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-N.Y.) said that if the case was not resolved promptly, members of the Senate ought to question White House Counsel Alberto R. Gonzales about it next month in hearings on his nomination for attorney general -- "a post that can and should play a direct role in resolving an issue affecting thousands of aging survivors who are sadly dying as their case continues to languish."
On Friday, a dozen members of Congress sent a letter to Gonzales urging him to get the case resolved "quickly and fairly." The group took particular umbrage at the Justice Department.
Led by Rep. Anthony D. Weiner (D-N.Y.), the lawmakers emphasized that the department, in its attempts to get the case dismissed, had "attacked the survivors themselves for lacking 'due diligence' in failing to bring the case before 2001, though the facts of the mishandling [of stolen goods] were only publicly revealed by a commission in 1999.".
No Deal Near in Holocaust Survivors' Suit.
Hungarian Jews, in a case against the U.S., are seeking compensation for property seized by the Nazis and recovered by the U.S. Army.
The Justice Department declined to comment.
White House spokeswoman Erin Healy said that Gonzales would reserve any comments on the issue until his confirmation hearing.
Although most of the lawmakers pressing the issue are Democrats, some Republicans have joined in. Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida has urged several key members of the administration -- including Karl Rove, the president's chief political advisor -- to settle the case.
"We've asked the world to provide restitution to survivors," she said recently. "Now it is our turn.".
The case stems from the Nazis' seizure of more than $200 million in gold, jewelry, Oriental rugs, fabrics and artwork -- among them paintings by Durer and Rembrandt.
The spoils were loaded on dozens of rail cars -- which came to be known as the Gold Train -- bound for Germany. However, the train was abandoned by the Nazis in Austria and recovered by the U.S. Army. Most of the treasures vanished, according to a report issued by the Presidential Advisory Commission on Holocaust Assets in the U.S. in 1999.
The plaintiffs assert that the U.S. knew or could have discovered the provenance of much of the booty and had acted illegally by failing to return the goods to the rightful owners, particularly since the Army had inventories prepared by the Nazis.
The plaintiffs are seeking a full accounting from the government and as much as $10,000 in damages each. It has been estimated that there could be 30,000 beneficiaries.
Reports released by the commission in 1999 and 2000 stated that the chief U.S. military official in western Austria at the end of World War II had requisitioned a hoard of the goods from a U.S. military warehouse in Salzburg, Austria -- including enough china and silverware for 45 people, a dozen silver candlesticks, 30 sets of table linens, carpets and furs.
The special U.S. commission report called the Gold Train affair "an example of an egregious failure of the United States to follow its own policy regarding restitution of Holocaust victims' property.".
The Justice Department has countered that because some Hungarian Jews knew as early as 1947 that the U.S. Army had taken possession of the Gold Train, the six-year statute of limitations for filing such a case expired no later than 1953.
In court papers filed in June, the government said the U.S. "bears neither the legal nor the moral responsibility" for the plundered valuables of the Hungarian Jews.
Singer said he was saddened by the government's position. The U.S. "fought against the Nazis and liberated people in concentration camps," Singer said. But some members of the government "fell short" in returning the seized possessions that are the subject of the survivors' lawsuit. He said the government should settle the case and make a formal apology.
"We are a nation strong enough to say 'I'm sorry,' " Singer said


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NB Stubblefield, NBS100

03 - How They Promoted and Sold the Wireless Telephone, (Radio} in 1908 -
A perspective by R.  Burt (Copyright 1908, by United Wireless Telegraph Company (DeForest)

"The Aerogram" was a publication issued by the United Wireless Telegraph Company, and as such might have been used to give investors accurate information about growth opportunities for the company. However, because United Wireless was being run mainly as a stock promotion scheme, more often the magazine merely drummed up enthusiasm for stock sales, by getting potential investors excited about developments where the company actually had no real plans. Much of the speculation in this article about the future possibilities for audio radio communication and broadcasting appear to reflect the ideas of United Wireless' former scientific director Lee DeForest, who had been forced out of the company in late 1906. (The photograph of the navy officer actually is from an installation by the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company, the new company which DeForest formed after his expulsion.) In spite of the talk about potential innovations, and the claim that "The United Wireless Telegraph Company is developing and protecting by patents, three distinct wireless telephones", the company actually did not do any significant developmental work in wireless telephony before it went bankrupt in 1912.

The Aerogram, November, 1908, pages 139-141:


By  R.  Burt

(Copyright 1908 by The Aerogram Publishing Company)

    When one realizes the actuality of telephoning without wires, and the mind turns to what it may mean in the future, about all that it is possible to immediately express, is a "gasp." It is almost beyond comprehension and the thinking of it, at first, is a mental jumble, that can only be brought to orderly understanding by comparative figures, obtained from sources that can be partially-appreciated by reason of daily association.
    Most people imagine they know all about the telephone because they use it frequently and because it appears to be so simple. They have little to do with its actual operation, therefore they do not appreciate the immensity of the telephone systems, all of which have been developed during the past 32 years. The following figures will aid the imagination in an attempt to estimate what the "wireless" 'phone will mean when at some future time all telephoning is done without the use of wires:

Total amount of capital of telephone companies (Bell and Independent), operating in the United States, about . . .


Two of the larger "Bell" Companies have over $200,000,000 capital each and nineteen companies have from $10,000,000 to $50,000,000 each.

Total number of Bell exchanges . . .


Miles of wire on poles and in buildings (Bell) . . .


Miles of wire underground (Bell) . . .


Miles of wire under water (Bell) . . .


Total miles of wire (Bell) . . .


Total circuits (Bell) . . .


Total stations (Bell) . . .


Total employees (Bell) . . .


Total number of instruments in use (Bell) . . .


Total number of messages per year (Bell) . . .


Average daily calls per subscriber (Bell) . . .


"Independent" companies in the United States . . .


Number of instruments in use (Independent) . . .


Number of messages annually (Independent) . . .


Number of telephone shareholders in the United States . . .


Increase in business per year . . .

15% to 20%

Total yearly income, Bell and Independent, about . . .


    The field on land is not nearly covered at present by the wire telephone systems and without the advent of wireless telephony it is reasonable to expect that the business of the wire companies would double in the next ten years. The wireless phone, by reason of eliminating the enormous cost of maintaining the poles and wires, should eventually not only usurp the business of the wire 'phone on land, but greatly extend its present utility and profits. The wireless telephone will also cover the seas, lakes and waterways, supplementing the wireless telegraph over short distances and will be installed on all the smaller craft. Inhabitants of islands in the lakes and rivers and along the coasts will be available as subscribers and have the advantage of a telephone system, where they now have no adequate means of rapid communication whatsoever.
    The Bell Telephone has been most profitable from an investor's standpoint, inasmuch as those who obtained an interest in it, during the early period of its development, and retained their interest, have been made comfortably wealthy by their small investment. A $100 investment made thirty years ago, has paid $201,000 in dividends. Bell Telephone stock advanced in twelve months, after it had proven its commercial value, from a few dollars a share to $3,200 per share.
    The question naturally arises "How will it be possible for so many wireless 'phones to be operated in a city like New York?" It is impossible to say just now. If the inventors of the wire telephone apparatus and its pioneers could have known twenty-five years ago how to accomplish, with the wire telephone, what is being done in "wire telephony" to-day, do you for one moment suppose they could have expended the years of labor they have in overcoming the many difficulties and obstacles, that they have had to contend with? There really should be no more difficulties to overcome, in extending the use of the wireless 'phone, than there were in developing the wire telephone. Also, it should be remembered, that engineers working the wireless 'phone have benefited considerably by the knowledge gained from the experience and difficulties encountered and surmounted by the engineers in the extension of the wire telephones. The questions still unanswered in one's mind are,--How is it done? How can it be possible? Will not the hundreds of thousands of messages sent out into the ether get "mixed," without the wires to guide or retain them along a well-defined course? The mind does go agroping, and it is not surprising. But, after grasping the following figures regarding the ether waves, by which a wireless message is transmitted and received, it would seem, that with so great a "flexibility" and with a more intimate knowledge of the ether currents and their actions, some means will be devised of overcoming the possibility of "mixed" talk.
    Ether, which is everywhere, vibrates normally at 650,000,000 vibrations per second; the action of some rays of light increases the normal vibration up to 850,000,000 per second. These ether vibrations transmit an electric charge from one particle to another with such rapidity, that the wave travels at the rate of 186,000 miles per second or a distance equaling seven and one-half times the distance around the world. Therefore, a wireless message with sufficiently far-reaching force, would envelop the world and also lap over halfway round again in one-tenth of a second.
    Every electrical discharge from lightning exerts an electrical force sufficiently powerful enough to send a wireless wave throughout the entire world, and every discharge of electricity in commercial use also emits a "wireless wave." It is also probable that all chemical action releases a minute wireless wave and so on until, as a matter of fact, there are already millions of wireless waves mingling and intermingling in and over New York City at the present time.
    Yet, a wireless wave message transmitted from a point a thousand miles away, rushes into this maelstrom and "finds" the station for which it is intended and records the intelligence it brings. There are already more than a hundred wireless stations, on shore and on boats, transmitting messages, everyone of which at the same time must pass the antenna wires of a wireless station in New York. A visit to one of the four "United" stations in New York City will show the operator calmly taking down the message intended for that station. He is operating and pays no attention to the other messages coming down over the same wire to his receiver, for he has tuning devices and other mechanical instruments, which disclose to him only the one message intended for his particular station.
    Isn't it wonderful? Just think a minute! It is only necessary for the wireless telegraph and the wireless telephone to be developed and fully extended, to entirely dispense with the unsightly and costly wires.
    Let's look a little further into the future, and see the time when the wireless 'phone will be in general use. It will be used in business and private affairs just as the wire 'phone is in use to-day. In such use one subscriber, to talk to another will have to call "central" or will probably be connected by an "automatic central." The wireless message sent from one central station, in a special tone or to be more exact having a special electrical "resistance," may be received in every home, within the range of station, by every subscriber having a receiver corresponding to the electrical resistance of the sending station. By this means it will be possible to send news, stock quotations, lectures, monologues, music, merchants bargain announcements, etc., etc., broadcast for whomsoever may subscribe for that service. The man of moderate means may have Grand Opera music and the best of entertainment always at his elbow for such members of his family as may care to listen--or each member of the family can choose the form of entertainment which their fancy, at the time, may dictate. Will not this be a Godsend as a means of making peace with the neighbor who objects to the phonograph, which will find its way to the scrap-heap with the advent of the wireless telephone.
    Yes! This is all a dream now, but, if a reader could join Rip Van Winkle's brigade and wake up twenty years hence, he would probably find it a dream come true. We have much to learn and there are still some people who scoff at the future possibilities of all scientific discoveries.
    What has been done towards developing and perfecting the wireless telephone? For one thing, voices and music have been transmitted distinctly for a distance of a hundred miles or more. Some of the most prominent Governments of the world already have some of their battleships equipped with the device and report fairly satisfactory service. The United States Atlantic Fleet, now on its voyage around the world, has the wireless 'phones installed for use in connection with giving and receiving orders, reports, etc., from the flagships to the other vessels.
    The United Wireless Telegraph Company is developing and protecting by patents, three distinct wireless telephones, in order to protect its interests in the development of wireless communication. They report progress to the extent of transmitting voices and music for 30 miles over the land and 100 miles over the sea. These 'phones are part of the assets of the United Company and the strong organization of that company will extend the telephone as well as the telegraph. With its telegraph already established and commercially successful, the day should not be far distant when its 'phone will be brought into commercial service and used as an adjunct to its wireless telegraph equipment.
    But remember! The wireless telephone is in its early infancy and that there is a considerable difference and lapse of time between "having," a wireless telephone that merely operates, and having an established wireless telephone system that produces a net profit revenue from actual commercial use.
    The wireless telegraph has gone through many vicissitudes, in order to gain its present position. Many wireless telegraph companies have been started and much wireless stock has been sold to the public. Only one wireless telegraph company has thus far succeeded. The bright future and enormous possibilities of the wireless 'phone may attract many promoters and many investors. Many companies may be formed and the printing presses be kept busy printing certificates to be issued and representing hundreds of thousands of shares of stock. All is not gold that glitters. One should be most careful in making an investment and should not risk money too carelessly, neither should one allow enthusiasm to blind one's judgment. The wireless telephone will win fortunes for many, but may also prove a pitfall to some. Do not invest recklessly; do not jump at the first offering made by stocksellers; investigate; be cautious.


Nathan B. Stubblefield, Murray State University,
More about Murray State, and the NBS "Teléph-on-délgreen" Campus



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