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FEATURED YEAR
• 02. "HOT EVENTS"
• 03. THANK YOU
NBS STUDY "K"
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"Hottest RF Events of

"1890 - 1899"

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1890
1896
03.

"Hot Events of the Year"

FOLLOW THE MONEY WITH PEOPLE AND EVENTS

TIMELINE HOME PAGE
TimeLine - Begins

TIMELINE HOME PAGE
TimeLine - BEGINS
1890 - General Electric (GE) formed
1890 - Born: Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890-1954), on December 18, in New York City. Engineer for Westinghouse. (Superheterodyne)
1890 - Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act, which outlaws trusts and combinations in restraint of trade and establishes fines for violators. The law remains in effect today
1890 - Born: Pattie Lee Stubblefield (1890-1967), on March 21, in Murray, Kentucky.
1891 - PATENT: Edison receives a patent for wireless telegraphy
1891s - The Nathan B. Stubblefield Industrial School and the Teléph-on-délgreen Institute
1891- Nathan Stubblefield perfected induction aerial coil
1891 - Tesla becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States
1892 - AT&T opens a long distance line connecting New York
1892 - General Electric Company formed
1892 - Born: Victoria Edison Stubblefield, daughter of inventor N. B. Stubblefield, in Murray, Kentucky
1892 - First Wireless Telephone Broadcasting Demonstrations: (Voice) Nathan B. Stubblefield's first public "wireless telephone" demonstrations were given in the town square of Murray, Kentucky
1893 - Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, a sister company to General Electric, formed in Paris
1892 - NBS. First permanent wireless telephone broadcasting installation. Teléph-on-délgreen Industrial School
1893 - PATENT EXPIRES: Bell Telephone patent expires
1893 - World's Fair: Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power
1893 - The stock market crashes, setting off the country's first great industrial depression
1894 - Marconi experiments with Hertzian Wave
1894 - Tesla became very close friends with Mark Twain and they spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere
1895 - Born: Nathan Franklin Stubblefield, in Murray, Kentucky. Son of inventor, Nathan B. Stubblefield
1895 - Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Demonstration: (dit dahs - no voice) across Marconi's the family estate at Pontecchio, Italy, - a distance of about 1.2

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1896 - Dow Jones Industrial Average formed. General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed
1896 - Henry Ford assembles the first automobile
1896 - PATENT FILED: Electricity from Earth Patent Filed, October 26, 1896. Nathan B. Stubblefield's Earth Coils produced continuous electromagnetic energy (EMF) emitted from the earth
1896 - PATENT FILED: Stubblefield's U. S. Patent No. 600,457, Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent, Electrical Battery
1896 - PATENT FILED - Marconis U.S. Patent 0586193 "Transmitting Electrical Signals", (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key)
1896 - PATENT: Nikola Tesla's Synchronous and Non-synchronous Rotary Gaps Patent. (Expires 1913)
1897 - Marconi formed The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Limited (in 1900 re-named Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company Limited)
1897 - Born: Oliver Alfonso Jefferson Stubblefield (1897-1962), on December 27, in Murray, Kentucky. Son of inventor, Nathan B. Stubblefield, and father Troy Cory-Stubblefield
1897 - PATENT GRANTED - Marconi's U.S. Patent 0586193 "Transmitting Electrical Signals", (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key)
1898 - Spanish American War
1898 - London based Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company (later renamed the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company), opened the World's first "wireless" factory
1898 - PATENT GRANTED: Stubblefield's U. S. Patent No. 600,457, Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent, Electrical Battery
1898 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 609,250 Electrical Ignitor for Gas Engines,
1899 - NBS. AMERICAN WIRELESS TELEPHONE & TELEGRAPH CO. - The First Wireless Telephone Company Established In America
1899 - AT&T replaces The American Bell Telephone Company
1899 - PATENT - Marconi's U.S. Patent 647,007 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless", Filed June 13, 1899, Granted April 10, 1900

 

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120 PIXELS 3 columns

1. Feature Story / 1890 -1899 /

CLICK TO GO TO PRIOR PAGE Page 1800 - TIMELINE -
1890 - 1899 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
CLICK TO GO TO NEXT Page 1900 - TIMELINE -
1890 - General Electric (GE) formed. By 1890 Edison organized his various businesses into the General Electric Company. FOR MORE STORY.
1890 - Michael Pupin studies low pressure vacuum-tube discharges, and invents an electrical resonator. At his death in 1935 he held 34 patents, most used in telephony and telegraphy.
1890 - Sherman Antitrust Law.
1890ar - Born: Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890-1954), on December 18, in New York City. Engineer for Westinghouse. (Superheterodyne).
1890s - By 1890, Stubblefield reportedly was using these methods to transmit and receive understandable human voice. He was reportedly the first to use a loudspeaker with his telephone (needs citation). Lochte has argued that when Stubblefield spoke of "wireless" telephony in the 1880s he merely meant his acoustic telephone, which could operate with non-electric cord, cat-gut or banjo strings.
1890s - Stubblefield vocational trade school - founded in 1890, called "The Nathan Stubblefield Industrial School," "Teléph-on-délgreen" on the 85 acre land that is now the campus of Murray State University. (Lochte) MORE TIMELINE ON FAMILY AND BIG SIX MEMBERS.
1890t - Working with these high voltages, Tesla discovers the best insulation by immersion in oil. Also at this time he discovers the workings of fluorescent gas filled tubes, since observers said that he had fluorescent tubes around his laboratory worked by "wireless power", i.e. from a high voltage cable loop around the laboratory. He even invented an X-ray lamp taking photos of the bones in his hand, but never claimed a patent for it. During this period he was hosting dinner parties and afterwards would take his guests back to his laboratory giving demonstrations of high voltage electricity, producing flaming discharges that leapt across the width of his laboratory, accompanied by the smell of sulphurous fumes. He wowed observers and reporters with seemingly death defying demonstrations, passing hundreds of thousand volts at high frequency with low currents through his body, lighting a carbon button lamp, which he held. Very high temperatures were created in the vacuous globe vaporizing the carbon into a gas.
1890 - Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act, on July 2, which outlaws trusts and combinations in restraint of trade and establishes fines for violators. The law remains in effect today.

1891 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
1891 - PATENT: Edison receives a patent for wireless telegraphy.
1891s 01 - Both Nathan's schools, the Nathan B. Stubblefield Industrial School and the Teléph-on-délgreen Institute, were built on Capt. Billy's 85 acre original Stubblefield farmland, now the campus of Murray State University. The University was founded by Rainey T. Wells, one Nathan's first students. The School was training installers. -MORE PHOTO OF NBS COST OF INSTALLATION.
1891s 01- Nathan Stubblefield perfected induction aerial coil. What made the induction coil so sensible, was the broadcaster didn't need the required tall 100' mast tower, and extraneous motor (generator) system to supply the high voltage current needed to power their induction coils to produce the RF spark signals emitted in space.
1891t - A set of experiments, on what Tesla called "a simpler device" for the production of electric oscillations, resulted in the device known today as the Tesla Coil. A Tesla Coil is a transformer made up of two parts - a primary and secondary coil, one inside the other. When electrically charged the interaction between the two coils produces a voltage high enough to make the air conduct electric currents. Getting the power high enough to make the air an effective conductor of currents is key to wireless transmission of radio waves. Tesla pursued the application of his coil technology to radio. By tuning a coil to a specific frequency he showed that the radio signal could be greatly magnified through resonant action. However, before he was able to fully demonstrate sending a radio signal 50 miles, his laboratory and equipment were destroyed in a fire. Thus, when Marconi made his famous 1901 Trans-Atlantic transmission, the power portion of his system was based on Tesla's findings. In fact, Tesla and Marconi remained in legal battles for patent priority even after both men died.
1891t - Tesla becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States at the age of 35, on July 30, 1891. He establishes his 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York during this same year. Later, Tesla would establish his Houston Street laboratory in New York at 46 E. Houston Street. He lit vacuum tubes wirelessly at both of the New York locations, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission.
1891t 02 - On February 21, 1891, Tesla publishes his article "Phenomena of alternate currents of very high frequency" in Electrical World, Vol. XVII, No. 8".
1891t 02- On February 4, 1891, Tesla applies for a patent for the production of high frequency currents by means of a condenser discharge.
1891t 04- On April 24, 1891, Tesla applies for a patent for a high frequency transformer.
1891t 05- On May 20, 1891, Tesla gives his famous lecture "Experiments with alternate currents of very high frequency and their application to methods of artificial illumination" before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
1892 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
1892 - AT&T reaches its initial goal, opening a long distance line connecting New York and Chicago. The circuit could handle only one call at a time. The price was $9 for the first five minutes.
1892 - Edison had organized his various businesses into the Edison General Electric Company. As the consumer electricity industry expanded, it became increasingly difficult for competitors to produce a complete electrical installation relying solely on their own technology. - INDEX NEW YORK VS KENTUCKY Believe it or not, in the days of Edison, before wireless telephony was renamed "Radio," the word "phony" -- bothered everyone in the wireless, especially those in the motor - electric generator industry like Tesla, Edison and Westinghouse. Nathan's first experiments in the EMW started with a compass and loadstones.
1892 - General Electric Company formed. In 1892, Edison General Electric Company and Thomson-Houston Electric Company were combined, in a merger arranged by financier J. P. Morgan, to form the General Electric Company, with its headquarters in Schenectady, New York.
1892 - Pneumatic automobile tire patented in Syracuse, New York.
1892 07 - Just shortly before the Bell patent was to expire, in 1893, the world's first wireless telephone (voice) connection to landline was demonstrated in 1892, by Nathan B. Stubblefield. His wireless telephone worked along side his own telephone system, connected to his own local Murray, Kentucky Telephone company.
1892af - Fleming presented an important paper on electrical transformer theory to the Institution of Electrical Engineers in London.
1892d - De Forest entered special mechanical engineering program (Sheffield School of Science) at Yale University, 1892-1899.
1892r - Fessenden in 1892, at the time of Stubblefield's first voice broadcast, he became fascinated with the work of Tesla while working with George Westinghouse to help set up the lighting for the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Fessenden then became professor of electrical engineering at Purdue University, and a year later he was named head of electrical engineering at Western University of Pennsylvania, the institution that was to become the modern University of Pittsburgh.
1892r - Fessenden meets his future wife, Helen in Bermuda. They had one son, Reginald Kennelly Fessenden.
1892s 1111 - Born: Victoria Edison Stubblefield, (1892-1967), on Nov. 11, in Murray, Kentucky. Daughter of inventor, N. B. Stubblefield.
1892s - Died: William Victor, Stubblefield (1865-1892), brother of N.B. Stubblefield, at age 27, in the spring of 1892.
1892s - Stubblefield loop antenna masts or rods were required to be grounded. Both loop and longwire aerials were utilized on Stubblefield's 1902 Philadelphia demonstrations. His directional aerials consist of a simple hand operated loop aerial connect to the telephone and his grounded rods. SEE PHOTO ABOVE /
1892s 01 - NBS - First Wireless Radio Telephone Broadcasting Demonstrations: (Voice). Stubblefield made private demonstrations of wireless telephony in 1892. Rainey T. Wells was one of the first persons to hear Stubblefield's wireless voice transmissions, in that year.
02 / TimeLine / NBS First Wireless Telephone™ Demonstration in Murray, KY
1892s 01 - First Wireless Telephone Broadcasting Demonstrations: (Voice) Nathan B. Stubblefield's first public "wireless telephone" demonstrations were given in the town square of Murray, Kentucky. By connecting his telephone apparatus to his newly invented electrolytic coil earth battery -- he transmitted and detected continuous undamped electromagnetic waves, at a radius of about one half mile; Using his grounded bare wired aerial system connected to his loop coil antenna, placed on top of his receiver -- he was able to talk back and forth "without wires" to others with a like telephone and loop antenna, or broadcast voice and music to those listening through a mono-earphone piece; Rainey T. Wells, who later became the founder and president of Murray State University, was one of the first persons to hear Stubblefield's wireless voice transmissions. Rainey became his assistant in the 1892 exhibit.
••• The public exhibits demonstrated Nathan continued to perfect his own after the continuous 1892-1893 demonstrations; • 1. Own Aerials; • 2. Own Inductive Coupling To The Aerial And Ground Circuits; • 3. Own Tuning Coils and Detectors, to Obtain the Desired Wavelength, and; • 4. Employed his own power source emitted from the earth that acted both as a "hot spot" to transmit a continuous flow of electricity to power his transmitter signals through the atmosphere, and as an unlimited supply of electricity that simulated a charged-up battery, ready to be used at will. *(See Footnote.) Ice House. *
1892s 01 - NBS. First permanent wireless telephone broadcasting installation. Teléph-on-délgreen Industrial School, was the first permanent wireless telephone broadcasting installation in the world, (the precursor to AM Radio). The transmitter and receivers were usually placed 200 feet apart for demonstrations. The electromagnetic coils were also the precursor for today's "Firewire" and battery operated implants in today's world of broadband streaming video and electro/heartstimulus technology.The station was constructed in Murray, Kentucky, U.S.A. in January, 1892. The School operated in conjunction with Stubblefield's Murray Court Square drug store/telephone facilities. Teléph-on-délgreen Industrial School is now the campus of Murray State University, founded by Rainey T. Wells. What is the Relevancy of Stubblefield's wireless telephone to the Internet? It is tantamount to the EMW theory that operates today's wireless Lap Tops, Palms, PDCs, WI-FI "HotSpots" and Bluetooth systems. They can all be linked to a local wired telephone or cable TV exchange using a modem or a router; Modems connected to the telephone line, provide Digital to Audio conversions to allow computers to connect over the telephone network.
1892s 02 - The Nathan Stubblefield Telephone Manufacturing Co., was the first permanent wired telephone exchange switchboard installation in Murray on February 12, 1894. The telephone service was constructed in the town square to work in conjunction with Stubblefield's wireless telephone operation. His mechanical telephone (patented 1888), was enabled to transmit voice without wires in 1892. Transmissions were created from grounded electromagnetic wave energy connected to his aerial, then transmitted through the atmosphere to a companion receiver. What is the Relevancy of Stubblefield's wireless telephone to the Internet? (See 1892).MORE 1868 TO 1908 TIMELINE
••• Stubblefield loop antenna masts or rods were required to be grounded 10 years later. Both loop and longwire aerials were utilized on Stubblefield's 1902 Philadelphia demonstrations. His directional aerials consist of a simple hand operated loop aerial connect to the telephone and his grounded rods (SEE PHOTO ABOVE), from 37 in 1895, to 391 in 1910.
1892t - By 1892, Tesla became aware of what Wilhelm Röntgen later identified as effects of X-rays.
1892t - May 1892, Tesla visited Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, where he was received as a national hero. Tesla also visits the Croation capital Zagreb where he gives a lecture about alternating current. Besides being a great inventor Tesla was an outspoken Serbian patriot. He had never hidden his patriotic feelings and was proud of his Croatian motherland and Serbian descent.
1892t - On February 3, 4, and 19, 1892, Tesla delivers a series of lectures in London, before the Association of Electrical Engineers and the Royal Society, and in Paris, before International Association of Electric Engineers and the French Society of Physicists, on the subject of "Experiments with alternate currents of high potential and high frequency". In these lectures, Tesla laid the foundations for his ideas of radio technology.
1892t - Receiving the news of his mother's illness, Tesla cancels the lectures planned for March and April in some other large European cities and, for the second time since his coming to the States, visits his homeland, arriving hours before his mother's death. After her death, Tesla fell ill. He spent two to three weeks recuperating in Gospic´ and the village of Tomingaj near Gracac, Croatia, the birthplace of his mother.
1892t -1894 - Tesla served as the vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now part of the IEEE).
1893 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
1893 - Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, a sister company to General Electric, formed in Paris. This company would eventually become Thomson. FOR MORE STORY. MORE TVInew STORY, MEN OF GE.
1893 - Grover Cleveland: U.S. Twenty-Fourth President, 1893-1897. 22nd President, 1885-1889. (b. March 18, 1837 in Caldwell, New Jersey, d. June 24, 1908 in his home in Princeton, New Jersey).
1893 - Louise Egan becomes the first woman hired by Dow Jones.
1893s 07 - Just shortly before the Bell patent was to expire, in 1893, the world's first wireless telephone (voice) connection to landline was demonstrated in 1892, by Nathan B. Stubblefield. His wireless telephone worked along side his own telephone system, connected to his own local Murray, Kentucky Telephone company.
1893 - PATENT EXPIRES: Bell Telephone patent expires.
1893r -1900 - Fessenden taught electrical engineering at Purdue and the University of Pittsburgh.
1893 - The stock market crashes, setting off the country's first great industrial depression. Bank closings and massive unemployment heighten social tension.
1893 - The World's Columbian Exposition takes place in Chicago. The Rockefellers attend.
1893t - At the 1893 World's Fair, the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, an international exposition was held which for the first time devoted a building to electrical exhibits. It was a historic event as Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by using it to illuminate the Exposition. On display were Tesla's fluorescent lights and single node bulbs. Tesla also explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make an egg made of copper stand on end in his demonstration of the device he constructed known as the "Egg of Columbus." • • The successful lighting of the Expo was then a factor in Westinghouse winning the contract to install the first hydroelectric power machinery at Niagara Falls. All of the enormous motors at the power station bore Tesla's name and patent numbers.
1893t - From 1893 to 1895, Tesla investigated high frequency alternating currents. He generated AC of one million volts using a conical Tesla coil and investigated the skin effect in conductors, designed tuned circuits, invented a machine for inducing sleep, cordless gas discharge lamps, and transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires, effectively building the first radio transmitter.
1893t - From 1893 to 1898, Tesla protects by patents his various discoveries in the field of high frequency currents, including a large number of oscillators with an ingenious device for extinguishing the sparks.
1893t - In St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla made a demonstration related to radio communication. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail its principles. Tesla's demonstrations were written about widely through various media outlets.
1893t - On February 24 and March 1, 1893, Tesla gives lectures in Philadelphia before the Franklin Institute and in St. Louis before the National Electrical Light Association: "On light and other high frequency phenomena". In Philadelphia he presents a more detailed plan of wireless radio telegraphy, including antenna-earth link and resonating electric current circuits.
1894 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
1894 - Dies: Heinrich Hertz, (1857-1894), on January 1, in Bonn, Germany at the age of 37.
1894 - Radio waves were known as 'Hertzian Waves' when Marconi began experimenting in 1894. A few years earlier Heinrich Hertz had produced and detected the waves across his laboratory. Marconi's achievement was to produce and detect the waves over long distances, laying the foundations for what today we know as radio
1894 - Wireless telegraphy using damped high frequency radio waves was demonstrated in 1894 by Sir Oliver Lodge, but that system could carry voice messages or music (see Radio article).
1894m - Guglielmo Marconi, the wealthy young Italian man, just in his 20s, read an account of Heinrich Hertz's discovery of electro-magnetic waves, in an electric journal his mother had pointed out.
••• The spark hit, his vacation was cut short, and he rushed back to his home-lab facilities, to test the sparkling ideas that had struck him.
1894m - Marconi first experiments with Hertzian Waves.
1894t - In 1894, Tesla erects his first small radio station in his laboratory and begins his experiments in radio technology. At the same time, he builds his first radio-controlled automata.
1894t - Tesla became very close friends with Mark Twain and they spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere. Tesla was also friends with Robert Underwood Johnson. He had amicable relations with, among others, Francis Marion Crawford, Stanford White, Fritz Lowenstein, George Scherff, and Kenneth Swezey, but he remained bitter towards Edison. The day after Edison died the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying, "He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that, "His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 per cent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense."
1895 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
1895 - The daily calling average per 1,000 people increased from 37 in 1895, to 391 in 1910.
1895 - Carnegie establishes the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh, with the purpose of celebrating art, science, music and literature.
1895s 0528 - Born: Nathan Franklin Stubblefield (1895- 1970), on May 28, in Murray, Kentucky. Son of inventor, Nathan B. Stubblefield.
1895m - Marconi succeeds in signaling dit dahs.
1895m - Wireless Telegraph Demonstration: (dit dahs - no voice) across Marconi's the family estate at Pontecchio, Italy, - a distance of about 1.2 miles. In the spring of 1895, what Nathan B. Stubblefield did with wireless voice transmission in 1892, Guglielmo Marconi did with dots and dashes utilizing damped electromagnetic waves emitted by his Ruhmkorff coils. (See 1897); He discovered that his "black box" utilizing the Ruhmkorff coil, could send controlled messages, by touching two electrically charged wires together in a dit dah manner - over distances far greater than those from his villa to the garden -- distances which would travel more than a mile. It was Marconi's great basic invention.
••• Like Stubblefield, Marconi built an aerial -- an antenna which he connected to one side of the spark gap; (Hertz had merely used a horizontal rod ending in a plate.) The aerial was a metal cylinder atop a pole. He connected the other side of the spark gap to a ground (at first, a copper plate lying in the ground). The receiver also had an aerial and ground; The signals were too weak so Marconi connects the oscillator to antenna and ground to increase power. It was Marconi's great basic invention. Like Stubblefield, he built an aerial -- an antenna which he connected to one side of the spark gap.
1895t - On March 13, 1895, fire destroys Tesla's laboratory with the radio station, the constructed automata, his first models of induction motors and other polyphase system devices as well as a valuable technical archive.
1895s - Nathan Stubblefield. In 1895, Nathan getting prepared to file for Patent for his coil-soil energy Batteries. The patent would become the premise for the exact, distinct and separate EMW soil science. It was his theory that if he could create several small green valleys of WiFi hot spots within his 85 acre Teléph-on-délgreen, each hot spot could become a static electricity storage bin that would produce enough undampened EMW currents to charge his electrolytic batteries. The cause of the EMW force could then create enough electricity to electrify both, a land-line telephony system, as well as his new mobile wireless telephony system.
1895t - Tesla and Edison became adversaries in part due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current advocated by Tesla and Westinghouse. Until Tesla invented the induction motor, AC 's advantages for long distance high voltage transmission were counterbalanced by the inability to operate motors on AC. As a result of the "War of Currents," Edison and Westinghouse were almost bankrupt.
1895t - Tesla in 1895 lost everything when his laboratory went up in smoke. Friends including Mr. Adams, a banking associate of J.P. Morgan, helped him set up a new laboratory in Houston Street, New York with a grant of $40,000. It took him two years to rebuild the radio system from his head, which he then patented, but was unable to persuade anyone to invest in his ideas. He staged an impressive demonstration in Madison Square Gardens, where he had a large tank of water on which floated a boat. He directed its movement by remote radio control. He even managed to get the boat to submerge still controlling its underwater movement. He claimed he could design a remote controlled submarine torpedo boat, but the U.S. Navy never took him up the idea. He was experimenting with very high voltages for the time, and had the vision of transmitting power through the air i.e. without wires. This tended to give him a bad name with other engineers and the technical press. They were uncertain of taking his wild predictions seriously.
1895t - The hydro-electric station was commissioned on April 20th 1895 with three water driven alternators each of 5,000 HP. Although not getting any financial reward, Tesla was acclaimed for his inventiveness and feted at dinners given in his honor.
02 / TimeLine / NBS Electrical Battery
1896s 1024 - PATENT FILED: Stubblefield's U. S. Patent No. 600,457, Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent, Electrical Battery, Filed Oct. 24, 1896, Granted March 8, 1898. / Click MORE STORY TO GO DIRECTLY TO U.S. Patent Office. MORE STORY TO GO DIRECTLY TO U.S. Patent Office.
1896 - Dow Jones Industrial Average officially launched. At that time, it consisted of industrial stocks only. General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly-formed Dow Jones Industrial Average. GE is the only one that still remains today. MORE STORY, MEN OF GE.
1896 - Henry Ford assembles the first automobile.
1896 - Just as electricity is starting to replace kerosene as an illuminant, gasoline enters the scene, creating a rising demand for oil.
1896 - Dies: Antonio Meucci, Italian inventor (1808-1896). Inventor of "Telectrophone." Bell changed the name to the "Speech Machine," when applying for his patent. So, according to an Italian postage stamp, it claims that Meucci not Bell - invented the telephone. Meucci patented his invention in 1871. (See 1871, Meucci's Telectrophone patent.)
1896al - Alexanderson devoted one year of technical work at the University of Lund.
1896d - De Forest receives Bachelor's Degree from Yale University. 
1896m 01 - Marconi planned to take his apparatus to England where he was introduced to Mr. (later Sir) William Preece, Engineer-in-Chief of the Post Office, and later that year was granted the world's first patent for a system of wireless telegraphy. He demonstrated his system successfully in London, on Salisbury Plain and across the Bristol Channel.
1896m 01 - Marconi leaves for London, England. It is said that upon entry to the country, nervous customs officials smash his apparatus under suspicion that it may be part of an Italian anarchist plot. Marconi performed his first official experiment from the terrace of the Post Office to the Salisbury plain. Marconi takes out patents in England for 'wireless telegraphy'. He was granted his first tabletop telegraph dit dah device.
1896s 1026 - PATENT FILED: Electricity from Earth Patent Filed, October 26, 1896. Nathan B. Stubblefield's Earth Coils produced continuous electromagnetic energy (EMF) emitted from the earth. The Patent was issued on March 8, 1898. An array of his coils placed around his transmitter, was the precursor to the AM Radio tower; The transmitter and receiving tower were usually placed 200 feet apart for demonstrations held at Stubblefield's Teléph-on-délgreen Industrial School or at Murray's Court Square. The towers at the School were 100 feet high. The small coils are also the precursor for today's electro/heart stimulus technology. What is the Relevancy of the earth battery to the Internet? See 1898-1905.
1896s - Motor. The NBS low power - motor, induction coil low-voltage concept was first used by Stubblefield to demonstrate how electrical power could be extracted from the earth to operate in his 1892 to 1886, NBS Industrial School Projects.
1896m 1207 - PATENT FILED - Marconis U.S. Patent 0586193"Transmitting Electrical Signals", (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key) Filed Dec. 7, 1896, Granted July 13, 1897. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
1896t - Nikola Tesla introduces the use of a rotary gap for his spark transmitter.
1896t - PATENT: Nikola Tesla's Synchronous and Non-synchronous Rotary Gaps Patent. (Expires 1913).
1896t - Still experimenting with resonance in 1896, he created a small earthquake. At this time Tesla published the complete description of the Tesla/Thomson coil in electrical journals (Elect. Review 1896), which was described as a high frequency, high voltage (10,000 &endash; 15,000 volts) transformer with no iron core. By 1899 Tesla was running short of money again and a dangerous situation was developing with such high voltages wafting around a confined laboratory. This shook buildings in a radius of a dozen square blocks, so that the rumbles reached the local police station, and a squad of policemen was dispatched to his laboratory. They arrived there only to find that he had smashed the offending equipment with a sledgehammer.
1897 - Edison develops the first practical incandescent lamp.
1897 - Joseph John Thompson discovers the existence of the electron.
1897 - The "Ticker" was announced in the Feb. 26 issue of The Wall Street Journal.
1897 - William McKinley: Twenty-Fifth U.S. President, 1897-1901. (b. January 29, 1843 in Niles, Ohio, d. September 14, 1901 after being shot in Buffalo, New York).
1897m - Marconi formed The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Limited (in 1900 re-named Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company Limited). In the same year he gave a demonstration to the Italian Government at Spezia where wireless signals were sent over a distance of twelve miles.
1897m - Marconi made a wireless transmission across water on May 13, 1897 from Lavernock Point, South Wales to Flat Holm island. He reportedly received the first trans-Atlantic radio signal on 12 December 1901 at Signal Hill in St. John's, Newfoundland (now in Canada) using a 400-foot (122-metre) kite-supported antenna for reception.
1897m - Marconi was awarded a patent for Radio communications with British Patent GB12039, "Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus there-for" on 2 July 1897 (sometimes recognized as the World's first patent in radio telecommunication). In July of 1897, Marconi formed the London based Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company (later renamed the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company).
1897m - The British Ministry gives Marconi money and technicians to continue his work. Marconi signals reached 5, 8, 15, 30 and 100 km. In July Marconi formed the Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Co. LTD.
1897m - The Marconi Company is formed in England.
1897 - Transmitting Electrical Signals by Ruhmkorff Coil Patent - (Dit Dahs, No Voice) - Guglielmo Marconi, Electromagnetic Spark Transmitting apparatus, was granted on July 13, 1897, United States Patent No. 586,193. The apparatus could transmit damped electromagnetic waves, utilized a Ruhmkorff coil. (see - 1895). The first permanent wireless telegraph installation was constructed at The Needles on the Isle of Wight, Great Britain, by Marconi's wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd, in November 1897.
1897m 0713 - PATENT GRANTED - Marconis U.S. Patent 0586193"Transmitting Electrical Signals", (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key) Filed Dec. 7, 1896, Granted July 13, 1897. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
1897r - PATENT FILED - Fessenden's U.S. Patent 644972 "Induction Coil for X-ray Apparatus" Filed March 10, 1897, Granted March 6, 1900. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
1897s - Nathan Stubblefield. The "NBS Coil" (patent pending) device is the coil device that transformed the electrical power generated by his earth battery to spin the motor to generated his Wireless Telephone™. The "NBS aerial" device is a transformer that has both its primary and secondary tuned in resonance. As it turns out, his unique style backboned his separate and distinct scientific method of transmitting RF voice signals through space between land Vehicles, ship-to-shore, moving trains, and office and residential telephone customers, with land-line telephone pole connections. CLICK MORE ABOUT: Loop Antenna. See Photo.
1897s 1227 - Born: Oliver Alfonso Jefferson Stubblefield (1897-1962), on December 27, in Murray, Kentucky. Son of inventor, Nathan B. Stubblefield, and father Troy Cory-Stubblefield.
1897t - In the spring of 1897, near New York, Tesla erects a new and bigger radio station and sends radio signals over a distance of more than 40 km.
1897t - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 645,576 307 System of Transmission of Electrical Energy, Filed Sept. 2, 1897, Granted March 20,1900. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
1897t - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 649,621 314 Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy, Filed Sept. 2, 1897, Granted May 15, 1900.
1897t - PATENT: Tesla applies for and is granted U.S. Patents 654 576 and 649 621 for his basic plans for radio technology with resonating electric current circuits, on September 2, 1897.
1897t - Tesla releases Westinghouse from contract, providing Westinghouse a break from Tesla's patent royalties. Westinghouse, buoyed up by this success and renewed fortune, decided to put forward a quotation for building a hydro-electric scheme for the Niagara River. This idea had been mooted as long ago as 1886 and a Commission had been appointed with Lord Kelvin, described as an eminent British engineer, as the Chairman and consultant. Westinghouse's company did not have enough money to build the scheme, although it had the Tesla AC patents, so he approached Edison's company, which was now called General Electric, an amalgamation of Edison General Electric and Thomson Houston, who had the capital with a well-known banker, J.P. Morgan behind them. But they did not have the necessary AC polyphase system, so that a deal was brokered for the two companies to set about designing a suitable scheme. They appointed George Forbes, a Scottish engineer in charge of the project.
1898 / CLICK FOR NBS Study "K" TIMELINE -
1898 - Marie Curie together with her husband, Pierre Curie studied radioactive materials, particularly the uranium pitchblende ore, which had the curious property of being more radioactive than the uranium extracted from it. By 1898 they deduced a logical explanation: that the pitchblende contained traces of some unknown radioactive component which was far more radioactive than uranium; thus on December 26th Marie Curie announced the existence of this new substance. Over several years of unceasing labor they refined several tons of pitchblende, progressively concentrating the radioactive components, and eventually isolating the chloride salts (refining radium chloride on April 20, 1902) and then two new chemical elements. The first they named polonium after Marie's native country Poland, and the other was named radium from its intense radioactivity.
1898 0404 - Spanish American War. Newspaper demands 'WAR WITH SPAIN.' The Hearst, New York Journal issued a million copy press run dedicated to the war in Cuba. The newspaper called for the immediate U.S. entry into war with Spain. "The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning." --Henry Cabot Lodge 19 March.
1898 0420 - U.S. President William McKinley signed the Joint Resolution for war with Spain and the ultimatum was forwarded to Spain. Spanish Minister to the United States Luís Polo de Bernabé demanded his passport and, along with the personnel of the Legation, left Washington for Canada.
1898 0421 - The Spanish Government considered the U.S. Joint Resolution of April 20 a declaration of war. U.S. Minister in Madrid, General Steward L. Woodford received his passport before presenting the ultimatum by the United States.
1898 - Carnegie tries to gain independence for the Philippines. Following the Spanish-American War, the United States captures the Philippines from Spain. The U.S. decides to pay Spain $20 million to purchase the islands. Carnegie sees this move as imperialist and offers the islands $20 million to purchase their independence. Carnegie decides to expand his business into the production of finished products, which will compete directly with some of J.P. Morgan's interests. Morgan believes Carnegie has become too much of a threat to his empire and must be bought out entirely.
1898 - Dow Jones co-founder Edward D. Jones retires from the Company.
1898 - The Journal was enlarged to six pages.
1898 - The Journal's "Review & Outlook" column, which still runs in the Journal today, appears for the first time. It initially was written by Charles Dow.
1898m - London based Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company (later renamed the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company), opened the World's first "wireless" factory in Hall Street, Chelmsford, England in 1898, employing around 50 people.
1898m - Marconi installs the world's first commercial radio service on Rathlin Island off the coast of Ireland.
1898m 03 - In March, 1898 Marconi flashed a message across the English Channel. He made a wireless transmission across the water from Ballycastle (Northern Ireland) to Rathlin Island.
1898m 08 - First telegraph message is used to send a help signal from a lighthouse boat in August.
1898m 09 - In September, Marconi comes to the U.S. where he carries out a telegraph circuit for the Navy between the coursers New York and Massachusetts. First wireless used in journalism for the Daily Express.
1898s 0308 - PATENT GRANTED: Stubblefield's U. S. Patent No. 600,457, Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent, Electrical Battery, Filed Oct. 24, 1896, Granted March 8, 1898. PATENT WAS ISSUED TO STUBBLEFIELD FOR the ELECTROLYTIC COIL. The Patent was referred to as the: Electrolitic Water Battery, the Electrolitic Oscillating Coil, the Induction Coil, Earth Battery, Undamped Transmitting Coils, The Stubblefield Electrolytic Detector. Stubblefield's grounded bare wired Antenna System was part of his system to transmit continuous voice or telegraph signals without wires through a single aerial tower. FOR MORE STORY
1898 0308 - PATENT GRANTED: Stubblefield's U. S. Patent No. 600,457, Wireless Telephone Transmission Coil Patent, Electrical Battery, Filed Oct. 24, 1896, Granted March 8, 1898. / Click MORE STORY TO GO DIRECTLY TO U.S. Patent Office. PATENT WAS ISSUED TO STUBBLEFIELD FOR the ELECTROLYTIC COIL. The Patent was referred to as the: Electrolitic Water Battery, the Electrolitic Oscillating Coil, the Induction Coil, Earth Battery, Undamped Transmitting Coils, The Stubblefield Electrolytic Detector. Stubblefield's grounded bare wired Antenna System was part of his system to transmit continuous voice or telegraph signals without wires through a single aerial tower. The first permanent wireless telephone broadcasting installation in the world, (the precursor to AM Radio) -- was erected by Stubblefield's Teleph-on-del-green Industrial College, in January, 1892. The location is now part of Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, U.S.A. The transmitter and receivers were usually placed 200 feet apart for demonstrations. The electromagnetic coils were also the precursor for today's "Firewire" and battery operated implants in today's world of broadband streaming video and electro/heartstimulus technology.
1898t - In the beginning of 1898, at a sea-coast near New York, Tesla conducts his famous experiment controlling, by radio, the movements of a boat model out on the sea from the distance of several kilometers.
1898t 0816 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 609,250 Electrical Ignitor for Gas Engines, Filed Feb. 17, 1897, Granted August 16, 1998. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
1898t 0701- PATENT - Tesla's U.S, Patent 613 809 for his discoveries underlying radio communication is granted on July 1, 1998.
1898t 1108 - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 613,809 318 Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles, Filed July 1, 1898, Granted Nov. 8, 1998.
1898 - Between 1898 and 1902, many follow the Rockefeller business model; 198 trusts are created in coal, sugar, and other industries.
1899 - Carnegie organizes several of his steel companies into Carnegie Steel. Carnegie Steel's annual profit is $40 million.
1899 1110 - NBS. AMERICAN WIRELESS TELEPHONE & TELEGRAPH CO. The First Wireless Telephone Company Established In America. AWT& T Co. was incorporated under the laws of the territory of Arizona on November 10, 1899, with a capitalization of five million dollars. Dr. Gustav P. Gehring - Gehring Group Of Companies, was the founder.
1899 - Michael Pupin of Columbia University and George Campbell of AT&T independently develop the theory of loading coils. With loading coils, which reduce the rate at which a traveling telephone signal weakens, it becomes possible to build longer telephone lines.
1899 0117 - U.S. claims Wake Island for use in cable link to the Philippines. U.S. Commander Edward Taussig, U.S.S. Bennington, landed on the island and claimed it for the United States. Spanish forces left Cuba.
1899 04 - In April the Spanish American War was over. The Queen regent of Spain, María Cristina, signed the Treaty of Paris, breaking the deadlock in the Spanish Cortes; on April 11, The Treaty of Paris was proclaimed; on June 2, Spanish forces at Baler, Philippine Islands, surrender to U.S.
1899 1230 - The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) replaces The American Bell Telephone Company. In a corporate reorganization, AT&T acquires the assets of its parent, American Bell Telephone, and becomes the parent of the Bell System.
1899af - Ambrose Fleming became a consultant to Marconi. This was to be a crucial event for Marconi that was to shape Marconi's future. Here he saw a discovery known as the Fleming Oscillation Valvet being developed in front of his eyes.
1899af - Fleming became a consultant to the Marconi Company in addition to his duties at UCL. At this time wireless, as it was then known, was still in its infancy and Marconi was continually making an improvement in the distance that could be achieved.
1899af - Fleming succeeded in sending a message across the Atlantic. Fleming became quite absorbed in the subject. He even designed the transmitter that made the first transatlantic transmission. He was also somewhat eccentric and during his experiments with transmitters he would always use the letter V sent in Morse (…-) as the test letter. ••• Fleming recognized that the major problem preventing vast improvements being made was that of detecting the signals themselves. In these early days the coherer was the main form of detector and it was very insensitive. Fleming devoted his mind to this, and in his quest to make improvements he tried a large number of new ideas to bring the required improvements.
1899d - De Forest receives Ph.D. from Yale University.  
1899m - At the invitation of the New York Herald, Marconi came to America and transmitted reports on the America Cup yacht races from a ship out of sight of land to a shore&endash;based receiver
1899m - Marconi established wireless communication between France and England across the English Channel. He erected permanent wireless stations at The Needles, Isle of Wight, at Bournemouth and later at the Haven Hotel, Poole, Dorset.
1899m - Marconi installs wireless equipment on three British battleships. Marconi in one of his early commercial stations. Nathan B. Stubblefield reportedly transmits voice messages by wireless. Marconi sends radio messages across the English Channel.
1899m 06 - PATENT: Marconi filed for patent for his Tuning Equipment. He also proved through experiments that the curvature of the earth was not an obstacle with his 32 mile connection from England to France.
1899m - PATENT - Marconi's U.S. Patent 647,007 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless", Filed June 13, 1899, Granted April 10, 1900. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT.
1899m 1010 - PATENT FILED - Marconi's U.S. Patent 650,109 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy" Filed Oct. 10, 1899, Granted May 22, 1900.
1899m 1012 - PATENT FILED - Marconi's U.S. Patent 650,110 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy" Filed Oct. 12, 1899, Issued May 22, 1900.
1899m 1226 - PATENT FILED - Marconi's U.S. Patent 647,008, Marconi," Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy" Filed Dec. 26, 1899 Granted April 10, 1900..
1899m 1226 - PATENT FILED - Marconi's U.S. Patent 647,009 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy" Filed Dec. 26, 1899, Granted April 10, 1900.
1899m - PATENT - Marconi's U.S. Patent 624,516 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy" Filed May 5, 1899, Granted May 9, 1899. CLI CK TO VIEW PATENT
1899m - PATENT - Marconi's U.S. Patent 627,650 "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy" Filed Jan. 5, 1899, Granted June 27, 1899. " CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
1899t - In 1899, in Colorado, Tesla erects a big, 200 kw radio station and establishes wireless telegraphy at a distance of over 1000 km. He conducts successful experiments with wireless transmission of larger amounts of electric power. He achieves frequencies of up to 20 million volts and invents a special apparatus, the "magnifying" transmitter.
1899t - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 685,955 331 "Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted" from a Distance to a Receiving Device Through Natural Media" Filed June 24, 1899, Granted Nov. 1, 1901.
1899t - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 685,953 338 "Method of Intensifying and Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media" Filed June 24, 1899, Granted Nov. 5, 1901.
1899t - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 685,956 353 "Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media" Filed Aug. 1, 1899, Granted Nov. 1, 1901.
1899t - PATENT - Tesla's U.S. Patent 685,954 344 "Method of Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media" Filed Aug. 1, 1899, Granted Nov. 5, 1901.
1899t - Tesla moves to Colorado Springs, Colorado where he would have room for his high-voltage, high-frequency experiments. A friend offered him a piece of land at Colorado Springs to build a bigger laboratory. He borrowed some money and set off for Colorado, leaving his New York laboratory in the hands of his capable and loyal assistant, George Scherff. Upon his arrival he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris. Tesla's diary contains explanations of his experiments concerning the ionosphere and the ground's telluric currents via transverse waves and longitudinal waves. At his lab, Tesla proved that the earth was a conductor, and he produced artificial lightning (with discharges consisting of millions of volts, and up to 135 feet long). Tesla also investigated atmospheric electricity, observing lightning signals via his receivers. Reproductions of Tesla's receivers and coherer circuits show an unpredicted level of complexity (e.g., distributed high-Q helical resonators, radio frequency feedback, crude heterodyne effects, and regeneration techniques). Tesla stated that he observed stationary waves during this time. In the Colorado Springs lab, he "recorded" signals of what he believed were extraterrestrial radio signals, though these announcements and his data were rejected by the scientific community. He noted measurements of repetitive signals from his receiver which are substantially different from the signals he had noted from storms and earth noise.
1899 - The Wall Street Journal adopts a standard five-column format.

Part01
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Part02 ImagesCSnews/TroyCigDdiaries0246w.jpg


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03. Editors Note / Free Use
Excerpts found on this page are from: "Nathan B. Stubblefield, the Radio Boy" & "The SMART-DAAF BOYS"™©1992 and "Disappointments Are Great, Follow the Money, The Internet - D-diaries - ©2006 - Published and Authored by TVI Publishing and Troy and Josie Cory-Stubblefield • ISBN 1-883644-34-8 • Library of Congress Catalog # TX 5-967-411
FREE USE OF CONTENTS: This Web page is about saying thanks to all of our Yes90 blogger team who have helped us put the Smart-Daaf Boy, Yes90 TimeLine together. The use of the contents on this page can be used at no cost to Web users for Educational and Historical purposes under Yes90/109 Authority and TVI Magazine, Publisher/Editor. Credits For Use should read: "Smart-Daaf Boy Data or NBS100.COM TeleCom Study" - Thanks Again. - MORE ABOUT: Content Clearance

ThankYou with a *NBSWiTel™©AFact - Denotes an Authorized NBS Wireless Telephone™ © ® Fact or Event Since 1892-2008.
••  Notice to all major Wireless Telephone Companies and Wi-Fi Broadcasters. The Next Century of the Wireless Telephone™ is waiting for you. WiFi, Digital RF spectrums and Satellite land-line VoIP is here!
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* The Smart-Daaf Boys: The Inventors of the Radio Frequency and Spectrums (RF) as Defined by the FCC
StubblefieldMarconiAmbrose FlemingReginald Fessenden
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40+110+570=720